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Zycin (Zithromax)
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Zycin

Azalides are a class of macrolide antibiotics which contain a nitrogen in the macrolide ring. This imparts different pharmacokinetic properties and is associated with greater stability of the molecule. One such Azalide is the antibiotic Zycin. This medication is a macrolide antibiotic used for various bacterial infections such as infections of the middle ear, throat, bronchus, sinuses, skin and soft tissue. It is also useful in treating pneumonia, typhoid, gonorrhoea, granuloma inguinale and chancroid. It prevents bacterial growth.

Other names for this medication:
Azatril, Azenil, Azibiot, Azicip, Azifast, Azigram, Azilide, Azimac, Azimax, Azimed, Azinix, Azithral, Azithromycin, Azitro, Azitrobac, Azitrocin, Azitrom, Azitromicina, Azitrox, Aziwok, Azomax, Aztrin, Azycyna, Azyth, Binozyt, Hemomycin, Koptin, Macrozit, Mezatrin, Misultina, Sumamed, Tritab, Tromix, Zertalin, Zibramax, Zimax, Zistic, Zithrin, Zithromax, Zithrox, Zitrocin, Zival, Zocin, Zomax

Similar Products:
Biaxin, Chloromycetin, Cipro, Tetracycline, Omnicef

 

Also known as:  Zithromax.

Description

Zycin is in a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. Zycin fights bacteria in the body. Zycin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as respiratory infections, skin infections, ear infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. Zycin may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Zycin Tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Zycin Tablets should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Zycin Tablets are a macrolide antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below.

Zycin is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections of the nose, throat, lungs, bronchitis, ear, skin, soft tissues, and sexually transmitted genital and urinary infections.

Zycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic of the azalide class. Like other macrolide antibiotics, Zycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of the bacterial 70S ribosome. Binding inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with amino acid translocation during the process of translation. Its effects may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending of the organism and the drug concentration. Its long half life, which enables once daily dosing and shorter administration durations, is a property distinct from other macrolides.

Dosage

Generic Zycin is available in: 250 mg (Low Dosage), 500 mg (Standard Dosage).

Generic Zycin can be taken in tablets, liquid form, injections. You should take it by mouth with water.

To avoid problems with stomach, take tablets and liquid form with meals. Liquid Generic Zycin form should be shook properly. Capsule is taken on empty stomach.

It is better to take Generic Zycin every day at the same time.

Generic Zycin treats different types of bacterial infections and can be used both by adults and by children. Thus, each age has different instructions.

For children it is better to take into account child weight. In treatment of otitis media, take Generic Zycin for 1-5 days.

For Adults: if you treat Pneumonia or Throat/Tonsil Infection the right dose is two tablets of 250 mg on the first day and then 250 mg once a day for 4 more days.

In prevention of MAC (mycobacterium avium complex) usual Generic Zycin dosage is 1,200 mg for a week.

In treatment of skin or infections usual Generic Zycin dosage is two tablets of 250 mg at the first day after you took one tablet of 250 mg for 4 days at the same time.

Overdose

If you overdose Zycin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Zycin overdosage: discomfort feeling in stomach, diarrhea, retching, nausea.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zycin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Zycin is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to azithromycin, erythromycin, any macrolide or ketolide drug.

Zycin is contraindicated in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of azithromycin.

fungsi obat zycin 500 mg

A national opportunistic chlamydia screening programme, mainly targeting young sexually active women, is gradually being introduced across the UK and in future will predominantly occur in primary care sites. The relative efficacy of recommended antibiotic treatments for chlamydia has been poorly studied and especially that of single dose azithromycin. In Portsmouth, 1536 patients treated for chlamydia, with four different antibiotic regimens, during the Department of Health pilot study, were asked to return for test of cure. No difference in treatment outcome was found using doxycycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin or azithromycin. Directly observed therapy with azithromycin may be especially helpful in treating young chlamydia-positive patients.

kegunaan obat zycin 500 mg

Azithromycin was subjected to a series of three in vitro and one in vivo genetic toxicology assays for the detection of drug-associated gene or chromosomal effects. In the Ames Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100, the presence of azithromycin was not associated with any increase in the number of his- revertants. Urine from mice dosed with up to 200 mg/kg of azithromycin also had no effect on the number of revertants in these same strains suggesting the absence of mutagenic excretory products following oral exposure. When tested up to the cytotoxic level of 240 micrograms/ml, azithromycin caused no increase in the mutant frequency at the thymidine kinase locus of L5178Y/TK cells. Both the mammalian and microbial gene mutation assays included the presence of rat-liver postmitochondrial (S9) fraction for the detection of mutagenic biotransformation products. Mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes cultured in the presence of 2.5-7.5 micrograms/ml azithromycin for 24 h or 30.0-40.0 micrograms/ml azithromycin for 3 h in the presence of rat S9 had chromosomal aberration frequencies that were no different than negative control cells even though slight to moderate mitotic suppression was associated with these concentrations. In vivo assessment of this compound was completed in male and female mice with a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg followed by sacrifice at 6, 24 or 48 h later and metaphase analysis of bone marrow for chromosomal aberrations. No statistically significant elevations of chromosomally aberrant cells were found. We conclude that azithromycin does not cause gene mutations in microbial or mammalian cells, or chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes or in mouse bone marrow in vivo.

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A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment.

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To review the chemistry, antimicrobial spectrum, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, adverse effects, and drug interactions of four new macrolide antibiotics: azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, and roxithromycin.

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Variables related to compliance for families filling antibiotic prescriptions and children taking these products are important in the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Because final assessment is likely to vary considerably among health care personnel, decisions must be made on an individual basis.

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This report, which is based on nonstandardized serial radiographs obtained over a period of 15 years, documents a case of localized chronic periodontitis associated with progressive deposition of calculus on the distal aspect of a mandibular second molar. The site was treated by scaling and root planing, followed by a course of adjunctive systemic azithromycin. Treatment yielded favorable reductions in probing depth and clinical inflammation, leaving only few isolated sites with pockets no deeper than 4 mm. Two years after completion of active treatment, there was radiographic evidence of increased bone density distal to the second molar.

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In March-July 2012 there was an epidemic increase in malaria infections in the Oriental Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In one referral hospital, overall hospital admissions in June 2012 were 2.6 times higher as compared to the same period in the years before and after (336 versus an average of 128 respectively); numbers of malaria cases and blood transfusions were nearly three- and five-fold higher respectively (317 versus 112 and 250 versus 55). Case fatality rates (in-hospital deaths versus all admissions) peaked at 14.6 %. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis together accounted for 88.9 % of pathogens isolated from blood cultures collected during an outreach visit to the affected districts in June 2012. Children infected with Salmonella Enteritidis (33 patient files available) tended to be co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum more often than children infected with Salmonella Typhimurium (40 patients files available) (81.8 % versus 62.5 %). Through the microbiological surveillance project (May 2009-May 2014) 113 unique NTS isolates were collected (28.5 % (113/396) of pathogens); most (95.3 %) were recovered from children < 15 years. Salmonella Typhimurium (n = 54) and Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 56) accounted for 47.8 % and of 49.6 % NTS isolates respectively. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed more heterogeneity for Salmonella Typhimurium than for Salmonella Enteritidis. Most (82/96, 85.4 %) NTS isolates that were available for antibiotic susceptibility testing were multidrug resistant. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and azithromycin.

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Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae is emerging in several countries, and it is mainly observed in children. To our knowledge, we conducted the first multicenter prospective epidemiological study of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae in order to investigate regional differences in the susceptibility of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae to antibacterial agents. The in vitro activities of 11 antimicrobial agents against macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates from 5 different areas of Japan were investigated. Among 190 M. pneumoniae isolates from pediatric patients, 124 (65.2%) isolates showed macrolide resistance and possessed an A2063G transition in domain V of the 23S rRNA. These isolates showed high resistance to erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≥ 16 μg/ml. Conversely, quinolones such as garenoxacin, moxifloxacin, tosufloxacin, and levofloxacin exhibited potent antimycoplasmal activity. No regional differences were observed with respect to the MICs among the 5 areas in Japan.

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zycin 500 tablet 2017-02-28

A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need Hiconcil 500 Mg Shqip of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol.

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Many studies have shown epidemiological links between strains isolated in tap water, and those isolated from patients. Molecular methods linked to PCR are more reliable and faster for identification of non- tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Omnicef Pediatric Dosage In this study molecular methods were used for identification and typing of NTM.

kegunaan obat zycin 500 mg 2015-10-29

Primary antibiotic resistance and H. pylori eradication Bactrim Ds Tablets rate were not different between cancer and non-cancer patients.

fungsi zycin 500 mg 2016-08-25

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters, such as the ratio of peak to minimum inhibitory concentration (peak/MIC ratio), ratio of 24-hour area under the curve to MIC (24-h AUC/MIC ratio), and the time above MIC, are good indicators of the drug dose-organism interaction. Time above the MIC is the important determinant of the activity of beta-lactams, macrolides, clindamycin, and linezolid. Free drug serum levels of these drugs should be above the MIC for at least 40%-50% of the dosing interval to produce adequate clinical and microbiological efficacy. Peak/MIC and 24-h AUC/MIC ratios are major determinants of the activity of aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. In general, peak/MIC ratios should exceed 8 and 24-h AUC/MIC values should be >100 to successfully treat gram-negative bacillary infections and to prevent Sumycin Drug Information the emergence of resistant organisms during therapy. The successful treatment of pneumococcal infections with fluoroquinolones and azithromycin appear to require 24-h AUC/MIC ratios of only 25-35. Mutation prevention concentrations are being reported for various fluoroquinolones with different pathogens, but their clinical significance has not yet been established. More information is needed on the role of PK/PD parameters and their magnitude for preventing mutations and the emergence of resistant organisms for most classes of antibiotics.

zycin tab 2017-04-28

We approached 640 women for the study and enrolled 600 (93.8%). Median age was 27.3 years (range 16-47), median lifetime partners 2.3 (range 1-50), and median gestational age 26.1 weeks (range 4-41). Chlamydia prevalence was 10% (95% CI 7.7% to 12.7%). Of 60 infected patients, 59 (98%) were treated with one dose of azithromycin. Fifty-two of 59 (88%) returned for test of cure, all of whom were treated successfully, with 46 (86%) achieving negative test of cure with one dose of azithromycin, and 6 (12%) after retreatment with a second dose Dalacin 300 Mg .

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The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin and clarithromycin are large molecular weight compounds that exhibit moderate to excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and humans. Previous concomitant dosing studies in rats using rifamycin SV, a general organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor, suggested that the high oral absorption of azithromycin and clarithromycin may be caused by facilitative uptake by intestinal Oatps. In this study, we used OATP/Oatp-expressing cells to investigate the interaction of macrolides with rat Oatp1a5, human OATP1A2, and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These experiments showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were potent inhibitors of rat Oatp1a5-mediated taurocholate uptake with apparent inhibitor constant (K(i)) values of 3.3 and 2.4 microM, respectively. The macrolides functioned as noncompetitive inhibitors but were not transport substrates for rat Oatp1a5, as assessed by direct uptake measurements of radiolabeled azithromycin and clarithromycin. cis-Inhibition and direct uptake studies Zidoval Gel How To Use further showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were only very weak inhibitors and not substrates for human OATP1A2 and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. In summary, these results indicate that the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin potently inhibit rat Oatp1a5 but do not significantly interact with OATP1A2 and OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These intestinally expressed OATP/Oatp(s) are not responsible for the postulated facilitative uptake of azithromycin and clarithromycin, and alternative facilitative pathways must exist for their intestinal absorption.

obat zycin 500 mg 2015-10-25

Azithromycin, doxycycline and phenoxymethylpenicillin were compared in a prospective, randomized study of 64 patients with typical erythema migrans. Twenty patients were treated with oral azithromycin, 250 mg bd for two days followed by 250 mg od for Cotrim 480 Mg Beipackzettel eight days, 21 patients were given phenoxymethylpenicillin 1 million IU tds for 14 days and 23 patients received doxycycline, 100 mg bd for 14 days. All patients were followed up for 24 months. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the persistence of cutaneous lesions after starting treatment; the mean durations were 10.5 days in the penicillin group, 8.8 days in the doxycycline group and 8.6 days in the azithromycin group. There were statistically significant differences in terms of the resolution of associated local and/or systemic symptoms. The response time was shortest in patients treated with azithromycin. Two patients who received phenoxymethylpenicillin and two given doxycycline subsequently developed major manifestations of Lyme borreliosis; these did not occur in patients receiving azithromycin. Although azithromycin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of erythema migrans, further studies will be needed to determine the optimal dosage and duration of therapy.

zycin where to buy 2015-07-28

A 14-day, randomized, open, phase I clinical trial was designed to examine possible pharmacokinetic interactions between rifabutin and two other antibiotics, azithromycin and clarithromycin, used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex infections. Thirty healthy male and female volunteers were divided into five groups of six participants each: 18 received 300 mg/day of rifabutin, 12 in combination with therapeutic doses of either azithromycin or clarithromycin; the remaining 12 received azithromycin Tetracycline 250 Mg Price or clarithromycin alone. On day 10 the study was terminated because of adverse events, including severe neutropenia. Fourteen participants who received rifabutin developed neutropenia, including all 12 participants who received azithromycin or clarithromycin concomitantly. Analyses of serum revealed no apparent pharmacokinetic interaction between azithromycin and rifabutin. However, the mean concentrations of rifabutin and 25-O-desacetyl-rifabutin (an active metabolite) in participants who received clarithromycin and rifabutin concomitantly were more than 400% and 3,700%, respectively, of concentrations in those who received rifabutin alone. Physicians should be aware that recommended prophylactic doses of rifabutin may be associated with severe neutropenia within 2 weeks after initiation of therapy, and all patients receiving rifabutin, especially with clarithromycin, should be monitored carefully for neutropenia.

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All patients improved in pain, halitosis, and gum bleeding after OHP. The control group did not Amoxil Breastfeeding Category improve plaque index (PI) or GH. In contrast, baseline PI decreased from 1.52 +/- 0.28 to 0.50 +/- 0.16 on day 15 (p < 0.01) and to 0.46 +/- 0.14 on day 30 (p < 0.01) in the azithromycin group, and the GH score decreased from 1.9 +/- 0.27 to 0.90 +/- 0.27 on day 15 (p < 0.05) and to 0.70 +/- 0.21 on day 30 (p < 0.01).