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To search for novel effective P-glycoprotein (P-gp) reversal agents in the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
Sixty-six patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The subjects received the standard conventional treatment (fluticasone nasal spray plus normal saline solution irrigation) or the conventional treatment plus 250 mg of azithromycin on a daily basis for 3 months. Evaluation was made based on the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) immediately before surgery and 3 months after surgery.
11 patients (26.2%) had a positive TOC following treatment with stat azithromycin. The risk of re-infection was excluded in two, identifying nine of the 11 (81.8%) as treatment failures. Two patients had a positive TOC following treatment with 1 week of doxycycline, both were found to have a risk of re-infection. There was a significantly higher treatment failure rate in patients receiving azithromycin (p=0.0025).
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These data provide further evidence that within CLAD there is a heterogeneity of phenotypes with different mechanisms involved. Further investigation is warranted to unravel the pathophysiology of both phenotypes.
The combinations of a third-generation cephalosporin plus azithromycin, doxycycline, rifampicin, gentamicin or fosfomycin produced FICIs of indifference. The Etest and agar dilution methods produced comparable results.
Some syphilis patients remain in a serologically active state after the recommended therapy. We currently know too little about the characteristics of this serological response.
We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1946 to March week 3, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to March 2013), SIGLE (OpenSIGLE, later OpenGrey (accessed 15 January 2013)), reference lists of the identified trials and systematic reviews of placebo-controlled studies. We also searched for ongoing trials via ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We imposed no language or publication restrictions.
Recent macrolide derivatives, roxithromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin show more favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics in comparison to old ones and some differences in antibacterial activity. With the aim of improving our understanding of some aspects of their action against respiratory pathogens, we determined the MICs and MBCs of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae. Azithromycin was the most active agent against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, while clarithromycin was more active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs similar to those of erythromycin. The bactericidal activity of all tested derivatives was weak against Staphylococcus aureus (MBC/MIC ratio approximately 16) and against Moraxella catarrhalis (MBC/MIC ratio, 8-16), but good against Staphylococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MBC/MIC ratio, 2-4). The determination of killing curves in the presence of 2 MIC and 10 MIC of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin confirmed their weak bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis as well as their effective activity against Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Azithromycin showed the highest bactericidal activity against Haemophilus influenzae. As expected, the three derivatives produced a quite prolonged PAE when exposed to 5 MIC for 1 h, ranging between 2-4 h. The bactericidal activity and the prolonged PAE of new macrolides for the most common respiratory pathogens should assure a good clinical activity in respiratory infections including those sustained by Haemophilus influenzae, which is less susceptible to erythromycin and other old macrolides.
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We conducted a case-control investigation among licensed daycare centers (LDCs) in northwest Missouri to determine transmission risk factors, tested isolates for antimicrobial resistance, and described treatment practices. Case LDCs had secondary attack rates of shigellosis>or=2% (range, 2%-25%) and control LDCs
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We studied the effects of two antibiotic regimens on the course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in the lungs of Swiss Webster mice. After intranasal challenge with isolates AR-388 (1.3 x 10(7) inclusion-forming units per mouse) and AR-39 (1.5 x 10(6) inclusion-forming units per mouse), groups of animals were treated with either doxycycline (10 mg/kg of body weight once a day for 3 days), azithromycin (10 mg/kg [single dose]), or saline. Responses were assessed by the isolation of organisms in cell culture, detection of TWAR DNA in lung tissues by PCR, and lung histology. Both regimens were effective in clearing infections induced by AR-388 (P = 0.02 and 0.007 for doxycycline and azithromycin, respectively) compared with controls. TWAR DNA was detected in 77 and 25% of culture-negative lungs 2 weeks after treatment of AR-388 and AR-39 infections, respectively. Histological changes showed interstitial pneumonitis and were similar over time for all groups. Single-dose azithromycin produced drug levels in lung tissues above the MICs for the test strains for a period three times longer than that of single-dose doxycycline. We concluded that short-term antibiotic regimens were successful for the treatment of experimental TWAR pneumonitis in mice. TWAR DNA was frequently recovered from lung tissues after apparently successful treatment.