There were a total of 250 respondents from 40 US states between 10/09 and 4/2010, corresponding to a response rate of 25%. Among respondents, 95.5% reported routine use of a cephalosporin only (including 84.4% who reported use of cefazolin) as antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean delivery; less than 3% reported use of an extended spectrum regimen such as cefazolin + azithromycin. Preoperative administration of antibiotic prophylaxis was reported by 84.6% compared to 15.0% who reported giving antibiotic prophylaxis after umbilical cord clamping. Administration of a single dose of antibiotic was reported by 96%.
In this case, a 30-year-old man had been treated for chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis since 2000, and presented at our outpatient clinic in May 2001 with chief complaints of massive yellow sputum expectoration and dyspnea. After he was admitted by our hospital, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were isolated at the rate of 10(8)/ml from his sputum culture. In electron-microscopic observation, the cilia of the bronchial epithelium were found to lack dynein arms. Semen examination revealed decreased sperm motility. Thus, the following diagnosis was made: diffuse bronchiectasis associated with the immotile-dyskinetic cilia syndrome, complicated with a P. aeruginosa infection. After the airway infection was ameliorated, 40 mg/day of clenbuterol hydrochloride was administered in combination with 250 mg of azithromycin, which was given twice a week, and which led to a markedly decreased frequency of exacerbation of airway infection. Moreover, chest CT scanning and respiratory function testing also indicated improvements. It was hypothesized that the decreased cilia motility due to P. aeruginosa-produced pyocyanin would be ameliorated with a b2 stimulant, and the inhibitory effect of a macrolide on the P. aeruginosa biofilm and production of pyocyanin would also be involved in the improvement of this case.
Intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma spp. is strongly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes. We assessed whether combined intraamniotic (IA) and maternal intravenous (IV) treatment with one of two candidate antibiotics, azithromycin (AZ) or solithromycin (SOLI), would eradicate intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy. Sheep with singleton pregnancies received an IA injection of U. parvum serovar 3 at 85 days of gestational age (GA). At 120 days of GA, animals (n=5 to 8/group) received one of the following treatments: (i) maternal IV SOLI with a single IA injection of vehicle (IV SOLI only); (ii) maternal IV SOLI with a single IA injection of SOLI (IV+IA SOLI); (iii) maternal IV AZ and a single IA injection of vehicle (IV AZ only); (iv) maternal IV AZ and a single IA injection of AZ (IV+IA AZ); or (v) maternal IV and single IA injection of vehicle (control). Lambs were surgically delivered at 125 days of GA. Treatment efficacies were assessed by U. parvum culture, quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and histopathology. Amniotic fluid (AF) from all control animals contained culturable U. parvum. AF, lung, and chorioamnion from all AZ- or SOLI-treated animals (IV only or IV plus IA) were negative for culturable U. parvum. Relative to the results for the control, the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2) in fetal skin were significantly decreased in the IV SOLI-only group, the MCP-1 protein concentration in the amniotic fluid was significantly increased in the IV+IA SOLI group, and there was no significant difference in the histological inflammation scoring of lung or chorioamnion among the five groups. In the present study, treatment with either AZ or SOLI (IV only or IV+IA) effectively eradicated macrolide-sensitive U. parvum from the AF. There was no discernible difference in antibiotic therapy efficacy between IV-only and IV+IA treatment regimens relative to the results for the control.
zithrin 500 mg dosage
Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups as pseudovehicle (group 1), control (group 2), alkali burned (group 3), and treatment (group 4) groups. Alkali injury was induced only in the right corneas of rats belonging to groups 3 and 4 using 1N NaOH. The rats in group 3 and the rats in group 4 were respectively treated either with an artificial tear gel or with 1.5% AZM eye drops for 5 days. At the fifth day of the experiment, the apoptosis in the corneal epithelium and endothelium of all rats was assessed using a terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In addition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) density in the corneal epithelium was measured in all rats.
Azithromycin (AZM) in fine granules was studied for its pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacies in eight child patients with ages between 1 month and 8 years. Informed consent was received from all of their parents. AZM was administered to the patients once a day at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 3 days. The clinical efficacies of AZM in 8 patients with microbial infections (pneumonia in one, Mycoplasma pneumonia in two, acute tonsillitis in one, pertussis in one, Campylobacter enteritis in one, infectious enteritis in one, Salmonella enteritis in one) were evaluated as "excellent" in five cases, "good" in two and "not evaluable" in one. As for the microbial efficacy, isolated strains were eradicated in 2 out of 3 patients. No adverse reaction was found except for one case with abnormal laboratory change, that is mildly increased GPT value. Plasma samples were collected from 3 cases. The elimination half-life of AZM was 45.8 hours. AUC0-infinity was 12.6 micrograms.hr/ml. Urine sample was collected from one. AZM concentration in urine was 35.0 micrograms/ml during a period between 48 and 72 hours after the start of treatment.
The emerging resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae together with increasing incidence of gonorrhoea cases in many countries have been global public health concerns. However, in recent years the levels of ESC resistance have decreased in several regions worldwide. We describe the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) data from 2013, and compare them to corresponding data from 2009-2012.
zithrin 500 mg
We co-cultured macrophages and fibroblasts together and stimulated them by adding P. aeruginosa or lipopolysaccharide to assess the ability of azithromycin to alter the macrophage phenotype, along with the impact exerted upon the production of fibronectin and other effectors that govern tissue remodelling, including transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and arginase. We supported these studies by evaluating the impact of azithromycin treatment on these proteins in a mouse model of P. aeruginosa infection.
P. aeruginosa from CF patients within biofilms are highly resistant to antibiotics but macrolides proved to augment the in vitro activity of anti-pseudomonal agents.
We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine the clinical and economic consequences of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a health care system with access unrestricted by financial barriers. The analysis was performed from a health care perspective and compared azithromycin (1200 mg/week) with no prophylaxis over a period of 10 years based on data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and randomized controlled trials. The main outcome measures were: expected survival; average health care costs; and cost-effectiveness in 1997 Swiss francs ( pound1 corresponds to about 2.3 CHF) per life-year saved. In patients with an initial CD4 count <50 cells/mm(3) and no AIDS, azithromycin increased expected survival by 4 months. In patients with AIDS, HAART durability had a major impact on expected survival and costs. Incremental survival increased from 2 to 4 months if we assumed a 10 year, instead of a 3 year, HAART effect. The cost-effectiveness of azithromycin relative to no prophylaxis in patients without AIDS was between 47,000 CHF (3-year HAART effect) and 60,000 CHF (10-year HAART effect) per life-year saved. The cost-effectiveness ratio increased to 118,000 CHF per life-year saved in patients with symptomatic AIDS. In conclusion, in the era of HAART, MAC prophylaxis with azithromycin increases expected survival and reduces health care costs substantially. Starting MAC prophylaxis in patients without AIDS is more effective and cost-effective than in patients with AIDS.