This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, parallel-group study conducted between June 2010 and March 2013 in four hospitals in Turkey. Women received a 14-day course of either oral moxifloxacin at 400mg once daily (n = 560) or oral ofloxacin at 400mg twice daily plus oral metronidazole at 500 mg twice daily (n = 543).
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Although absolute estimates of metronidazole total body exposure were highest in women during early term pregnancy, weight-corrected estimates of exposure maximum plasma drug concentration (C(max)) and the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC(0-12)), along with apparent oral clearance and distribution volume, were not significantly different between women at early, middle, and late stages of pregnancy and were in the range of reported values for nonpregnant patients receiving a similar dose.
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Thirty-two consecutive patients with acid-peptic disease associated with H. pylori infection (duodenal ulcer 18 patients; gastric ulcer 8 patients; duodenitis 1 patient; gastritis 5 patients) were prospectively recruited. They were given a 1-week course of lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin modified-release 500 mg, and metronidazole 800 mg, all taken once daily.
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LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish.
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Pseudomonas putida is a rod-shaped, non fermenting Gram-negative organism frequently found in the environment that utilizes aerobic metabolism, previously thought to be of low pathogenicity. It had been reported as cause of skin and soft tissue infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. A female green grocer, 51 year-old came to internal medicine out-patient clinic with gangrene and osteomyelitis on her 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) digit and wound on the sole of the right foot since 1 month prior. The patient had history of uncontrolled diabetes since a year ago. She was given ceftriaxone 2 grams b.i.d, metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d empirically and then amikacin 250 mg b.i.d, followed by amputation of the digits and wound debridement. The microorganism's culture from pus revealed multi drug resistant Pseudomonas putida. She recovered well after antibiotics and surgery.
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Metronidazole (MTZ), an antiparasitic and antibacterial compound, is one of the world's most widely used drugs. Despite being considered as a rodent mutagen and a carcinogen, it is still widely used in humans for the treatment of infections with anaerobic organisms. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of MTZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis as well as histopathological examination in Tilapia zillii. Moreover, the protective effect of vitamin C (VitC) against toxicity of MTZ was investigated in the present study. Fish were treated with three doses of MTZ (5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1)) alone or in combination with VitC (200 mg kg(-1) food) at several time intervals (2 days, 7 days and 14 days). The results of the present study showed a significant effect of MTZ on micronucleus formation and changes in polymorphic band patterns as well as induction of different histopathological alterations in Tilapia zillii. The effects of the drug were reduced when fish were exposed to a combination of MTZ and VitC.
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Surgical debridement was performed within 6h of injury in 62% of cases and after 6h in 38% of cases. Infection rates were 7.8% and 9.6%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.6438). The timing of antibiotic administration was not significantly related to the infection rate.
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Clostridium difficile was identified as the putative agent of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis in 1978 and is now recognized as the major identifiable cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This microbe causes a spectrum of enteric disease ranging from nuisance diarrhea to life-threatening colitis. Risk factors include increasing age, exposure to antibiotics, colonization or acquisition of toxin-producing strains of C. difficile, and lack of circulating antibody to C. difficile toxin A. Detection is relatively simple by stool assay for C. difficile toxin--usually an enzyme immunoassay that will detect toxin A and B. Most nonsevere cases will respond with discontinuation of the implicated antibiotic. More severe cases require metronidazole and supportive care. The major complications include ileus, toxic megacolon, relapsing disease after antibiotic treatment, and nosocomial epidemics.
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It was observed that Gram staining is a rapid and reliable method of pre-diagnosis for H. pylori; that histopathological examination methods are of considerable importance in diagnosis; and that the investigation of the positivity of anti-CagA(IgG) will be a guide in the identification of virulent strains in particular. In addition, it was also concluded that since serological examination does not require invasive measures, this will pose an advantage. The culture method can be applied with the aim of diagnosis in cases identified as DU using endoscopy, and that in cases resistant to treatment it can be applied for the purpose of determining antimicrobial sensitivity. E-test and disc diffusion methods exhibited a rather good correlation, for which reason the disc diffusion method can be used in the determination of antimicrobial sensitivity in H. pylori strains.