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Our results show that treatment with cefpodoxime proxetil may be effective in reducing symptoms of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis and preventing recurrences without causing side effects or developing bacterial resistance.
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The effects of gastric motility on the pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime proxetil, an oral, broad spectrum, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic were evaluated in 12 healthy subjects. In this open-label, crossover trial, each subject took a 200 mg dose (two 100 mg film-coated tablets) in each study period. There was an initial fasting period followed by a control period and then either a propantheline or metoclopramide period. Gastric motility was measured using [99mTc]-labeled sulfur colloid in oatmeal in the control, propantheline and metoclopramide periods. Treatment with propantheline or metoclopramide was given 30 min before dosing with the antibiotic and the radioisotope. Serial images with a gamma counter were made every 15 min for 2 h. Gastric emptying time was faster than control with metoclopramide, but generally slower with propantheline than control. The mean peak plasma concentration, mean area under plasma concentration time curve and mean half-life of cefpodoxime proxetil were similar in all groups as compared to control. The mean time to peak plasma concentration was delayed in the propantheline period and peak plasma concentrations were greater at all sampling times at six hours after dosing. This study utilized the gastric nuclear scan with modification of gastric motility by metoclopramide and propantheline and with simultaneous determination of the disposition of cefpodoxime proxetil to understand the absorption of the drug.
To develop and validate specific and accurate UV spectrophotometric method of cefpodoxime proxetil by using different hydrotropic solubilizing agents.
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Between October, 1996, and April, 1997, 450 children (mean age, 14.3 months) were enrolled, 227 in the 5-day group and 223 in the 10-day group. In the per protocol analysis clinical success was obtained on Days 12 to 14 after the beginning of treatment (main analysis) in 175 (84.1%) of the 208 children receiving the 5-day regimen and 194 (92.4%) of the 210 children receiving the 10-day regimen (P = 0.009). The superiority of the standard regimen was more marked among children cared for outside their homes (92.5% vs. 81.5%). Clinical success persisted on Days 28 to 42 among 134 (85.4%) of the 157 assessable patients in the 5-day group and 144 (83.7%) of the 172 assessable patients in the 10-day group (P = 0.68).
It was found that 62.68% were males, 26% patients were in the age group 26-35 years, followed by 22.8% belonging to the age group 26-35 years. Maximum number of patients were diagnosed with ear (37.3%) and throat (36.2%) infections. The most frequently prescribed antibacterials were β-lactams (45.52%) followed by quinolones (26.31%). The most commonly used agent in penicillins was amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (21.74%), in cepahalosporins was cefpodoxime proxetil (5.49%) and in quinolones was gemifloxacin (14.41%). Further, 66.67% of the patients received single antibacterial drug and the average number of antibacterial agents prescribed per patient per course was found to be 1.58. It was also observed that 70.71% of the antibacterials were prescribed by oral route. The most concomitant conditions were found to be diabetes (10.5%), hypertension (6.16%) and coronary heart disease (5.07%). All the drugs were prescribed by their brand names and 48.91% patients showed good adherence with the prescribed therapy.
Although it varies from country to country, there is a worrying worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance among pathogens causing otitis. This has led to a search for therapeutic alternatives to the reference treatment, which is still amoxicillin in many countries. Cefpodoxime proxetil is one such alternative. Six comparative randomized trials of cefpodoxime proxetil in childhood acute otitis media have been published or presented at international conferences. They involved a total of 1188 patients, 658 of whom received cefpodoxime proxetil and 530 of whom received the comparator drug (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in 3 trials, cefaclor in 1, and cefixime in 2); duration of treatment varied from 5 days for cefpodoxime proxetil to 10 days for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and the age of the children included ranged from 2 months to 12 years. The clinical efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil was at least equivalent to that of the comparators in 4 trials and significantly better in 2 trials. Firstly, in one study vs. amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, the superiority of cefpodoxime proxetil (8 mg/kg/day twice daily) in terms of healing at the end of treatment and in terms of the number of normal tympanograms at the follow-up visit was shown. Secondly, in a study performed by our group, vs. cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil (8 mg/kg/day twice daily) showed a better healing rate at the end of treatment in febrile and painful acute otitis media. The microbiologic and pharmacokinetic data show that cefpodoxime proxetil is one of the most active compounds against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Acute otitis media is the leading reason for antibiotic prescriptions in childhood. The increase in antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae is generally attributed to the extensive use of antibiotics and the selective pressure on the bacterial strains of the nasopharyngeal flora.
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Evidence for optimal treatment regimens was obtained by searching PubMed and the Cochrane database for English-language studies published up to July 21, 2014.