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Cat-scratch disease is a subacute, regional lymphadenitis syndrome that occurs mainly in children. The causative agent is Bartonella henselae. After an incubation period ranging usually between 1 and 2 weeks, red papules develop at the site of cutaneous inoculation and persist until the development of lymphadenopathy with some malaise. Cases with complications have been observed including Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, encephalopathy, a variety of exanthems and granumatous hepatitis. Diagnosis is based on serologic tests and, when necessary, antimicrobial treatment can be considered. Incision and drainage should not be done.
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To report a rare case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid.
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The risk for a child to carry penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC > or = 0.125 mg/l) did not increase after antibiotic treatment: 84 of 364 (23.1%) before, 70 of 364 (19.2%) after. There was a significant decrease of penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae carriage, 117 of 364 (32.1%) before treatment compared with 24 of 364 (6.6%) (P = 0.0001) after treatment. However, among the children carrying S. pneumoniae at the end of the treatment there was an increase in the percentage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci: 84 of 201 (41.8%) before treatment and 70 of 94 (74.5%) after treatment. Among the 94 children carrying S. pneumoniae at the end of the treatment, 22 did not harbor pneumococcus before, 16 carried another genotypically different serotype and 56 harbored the same serotype. Among these 56 children 2 patients harbored strains that had increased MICs for the tested beta-lactam antibiotics. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed that in one case, the strains were genetically different.
This was an investigator-blind trial in young children 6-24 months old with no history of recurrent AOM who were randomly assigned to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (80 mg/kg/day amoxicillin) or cefdinir (14 mg/kg/day), both in two divided doses. The diagnosis of AOM was based on specific clinical criteria by validated otoscopists at two AOM research centres. The outcome measure for clinical cure was resolution of all symptoms and signs of AOM except for persistence of middle-ear effusion at test-of-cure (TOC) 11-14 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Clinical failure was defined as persistence of symptoms and signs of AOM and the need for additional antibiotic therapy. Subjects lost to follow up or who had not taken at least 80% of the prescribed medication were classified as having an indeterminate response. Compliance was monitored using Medical Electronic Monitoring System (MEMS) caps and antibiotic bottle volume measurement at the TOC visit. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association of age with cure rate. Full interactions in terms of age with treatment were included to estimate any age gradient differential.
Forty-three episodes (8.8% of cases of bacteremia due to E. coli) were included; 70% of the isolates produced a CTX-M type of ESBL. The most frequent origins of infection were the urinary (46%) and biliary tracts (21%). Acquisition was nosocomial in 21 cases (49%), health care associated in 14 cases (32%), and strictly community acquired in 8 cases (19%). Thirty-eight percent and 25% of patients had obstructive diseases of the urinary and biliary tracts, respectively, and 38% had recently received antimicrobials. Nine patients (21%) died. Compared with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase-inhibitor and carbapenem-based regimens, empirical therapy with cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones was associated with a higher mortality rate (9% vs. 35%; P=.05) and needed to be changed more frequently (24% vs. 78%; P=.001).
Fifteen isolates of A. otitidis were identified in the middle ear fluid of the patients. All the isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and fluoroquinolones. All of the 15 isolates were typed by PFGE method and were found to include 13 different PFGE types.
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This study compared MIC distributions of amoxycillin-clavulanate obtained with NCCLS and French (Comite de l'Antibiogramme de la Societe Francaise de Microbiologie; CA-SFM) methodologies for Escherichia coli isolates from urine that were non-susceptible to amoxycillin-clavulanate by the disk diffusion method. With the NCCLS and CA-SFM methods, 74% and 13%, respectively, of these isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin-clavulanate. Therefore, the apparent relatively poor efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanate against E. coli in French hospitals probably reflects a methodological difference rather than a localised resistance problem. This implies that amoxycillin-clavulanate could be used as an alternative to fluoroquinolones for treatment of E. coli urinary tract infections. Susceptibility tests for amoxycillin-clavulanate should be standardised worldwide.
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The mean age was 56.0 + or - 12.1 years, and mean body mass index was 42.6 + or - 8.4 kg/m(2) (range, 30-86.4 kg/m(2)). The EPA cohort experienced fewer surgical-site infections (6 [5.9%] vs 12 [27.9%]; P < .001; adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.51; P < .001), had lower probability of incision and drainage (3 [2.9%] vs 5 [11.6%]; P = .05), and required fewer infection-related admissions (5 [4.9%] vs 6 [13.9%]; P = .08).