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To report our experience in identification and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) with otorrhea secondary to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), which is seen in children at increasing rates.
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The emergence of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A, B or C limits treatment options. We studied the impact of DCS isolates on the fate of travellers returning with enteric fever and possible alternative treatment options. We evaluated the clinical features, susceptibility data and efficacy of empirical treatment in patients with positive blood cultures of a DCS isolate compared to patients infected with a ciprofloxacin-susceptible (CS) isolate in the period from January 2002 to August 2008. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin were determined to assess if increasing the dose would result in adequate unbound fraction of the drug 24-h area under the concentration-time curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC) ratio. Patients with DCS more often returned from the Indian subcontinent and had a longer fever clearance time and length of hospital stay compared to patients in whom the initial empirical therapy was adequate. The mean ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC was 41.3 ± 18.8 in the patients with DCS and 585.4 ± 219 in patients with a CS isolate. For DCS isolates, the mean ƒAUC0-24/MIC for levofloxacin was 60.5 ± 28.7 and for gatifloxacin, it was 97.9 ± 28.0. Increasing the dose to an adequate ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC ratio will lead to conceivably toxic drug levels in 50% of the patients treated with ciprofloxacin. Emerging DCS isolates has led to the failure of empirical treatment in ill-returned travellers. We demonstrated that, in some cases, an adequate ƒAUC(0-24)/MIC ratio could be achieved by increasing the dose of ciprofloxacin or by the use of alternative fluoroquinolones.
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During 18 month treatment, 130 patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into a treatment group (rifabutin, pasiniazide, levofloxacin, ethambutol, ethionamide, amikacin for 3 months, rifabutin, pasiniazide, levofloxacin, ethambutol, ethionamide for 6 months, rifabutin, pasiniazide, levofloxacin, ethambutol for 9 months), and a control group (rifapentine, pasiniazide, levofloxacin, ethambutol, ethionamide, amikacin for 3 months, rifabutin, pasiniazide, levofloxacin, ethambutol, ethionamide for 6 months, rifabutin, pasiniazide, levofloxacin, ethambutol for 9 months) with proportion 1:1 random, and parallel compared method.
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Antibiotics can potentiate warfarin anticoagulation. While preemptive warfarin dose reduction (DR) upon initiation of antibiotics has been advocated by experts, there are no published data regarding the efficacy of this strategy vs. the conventional strategy of not changing warfarin dose and carefully following international normalized ratio (INR) results.
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A physician-directed computer-generated intervention designed to limit the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics was initiated, and institutional changes in antibiotic use and nosocomial MRSA infection rates were tracked.
The prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. In the present study, a comparison of drug sensitivity and genotypes of clinically isolated strains of levofloxacin (LVFX)-resistant S. pneumoniae obtained from Hong Kong, Okinawa Island and the Japanese main island (Honshu) was performed. MICs of quinolones (LVFX, tosufloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and sitafloxacin (STFX)) and other antibiotics (penicillin G, cefcapene, cefditoren, clarithromycin and azithromycin) were determined by a microdilution broth method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Standards. The quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of these strains were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. All 40 strains tested had more than one amino-acid substitution in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC or parE. Although there seemed to be some clonality in strains obtained from Hong Kong, there was no clonality in strains obtained from Okinawa and Japan. Strains obtained from Hong Kong, Okinawa Island and the Japanese main island were genetically different by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The range of MIC values of STFX against isolates resistant to LVFX (MIC 4-32 mg l(-1)) was 0.12-0.5 mg l(-1), and MIC(80) values of STFX against LVFX-resistant isolates were 0.25 mg l(-1). This study suggests that LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae is similar in all three locations and STFX is potent against LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae with multiple mutations in QRDRs of gyrase A and topoisomerase IV.
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To describe two patients with Behçet's disease who underwent cataract surgery one week after infliximab administration.