In total, 32 episodes (31 patients) of S. maltophilia bacteremia were reviewed. The average rate of nosocomial bloodstream infection was 8.3 episodes per 100,000 patient-days, and an average of 6.4% of them were caused by S. maltophilia. Malignancy was the most common underlying disease (32%). Six episodes of S. maltophilia bacteremia had soft tissue involvement, and only 1 of them underwent surgical intervention and survived. These 32 isolates were most susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (91%), and no obvious increase in multidrug resistance was noted in the previous 10 years. The crude mortality rate was 40.6%. Malignancy, failure to remove central venous catheter, and ineffective antibiotic treatment were significant risk factors for mortality.
1. The nephrotoxicity of gentamicin is well known. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of gentamicin plus co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim). Therefore, Wistar rats were treated daily with 100 mg/kg gentamicin or 100 mg/kg gentamicin plus 30 mg/kg trimethoprim-150 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole for 14 days. 2. Serum biochemical parameters were measured on days 0, 8 and 15, and histopathological examinations of kidneys were performed on day 15, one day following end of treatment. Gentamicin treated rats exhibited a 63% increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), a 124% increase in uric acid, and a 63% decrease in serum potassium levels on day 15. 3. The combination of gentamicin plus co-trimoxazole partially ameliorated these effects. With the three drug combination no change occurred in BUN, and only a 30% decrease occurred in serum potassium levels. 4. While serum creatinine levels significantly increased following gentamicin, the co-administration of co-trimoxazole resulted in a significant decrease (30%) in creatinine. Histopathological examinations of kidneys suggested a lower degree of nephrotoxicity in rats treated with gentamicin plus co-trimoxazole as compared to animals treated with gentamicin alone. 5. The results support the importance of monitoring serum biochemical parameters when treating with gentamicin or gentamicin plus co-trimoxazole.
trisul tablets 480mg
To date, in the investigation of the role of S. aureus in WG, we face a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, clinical results obtained from treatment of WG patients with co-trimoxazole and studies assessing the impact of S. aureus on disease relapses strongly suggest that this bacterium contributes to disease pathophysiology. On the other hand, laboratory investigation of the possible mechanisms by which S. aureus is involved in WG is scarce, despite the fact that knowledge and tools to study this microorganism are abundant. In the present review, we discuss recent works investigating the possible pathophysiologic contribution of S. aureus to WG. Moreover, we propose a number of possibly relevant pathways of interaction of this bacterium with lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells of the WG host.
Absent for several decades, the chancroid reappeared in Algeria in 1988. In the unique department of Dermatology and Venereology of the University Hospital of the country of Tlemcen (more than 700,000 inhabitants), we wanted to know the state of this STD seven years after the report of the first cases. The file of the consulting patients were examined. We looked for the principal characteristics of this STD: age, sex, incubation period, place infection contact, type of relation, clinical presentation, evolution without and with treatment, other associated STD (syphilis, HIV). From August 1988 (1st case) to December 1995, 144 cases of chancroid were collected = 1988: 6, 1989: 5, 1990: 7, 1991: 18, 1992: 11, 1993: 33, 1994: 48, 1995: 16. The presentation is quite stereotyped; it concerns males only, singles in must cases, having had sexual relations with prostitutes. The incubation period is short (less than 10 days), the characteristic ulceration presents, very often, some adenopathies. The treatment by cotrimoxazole is efficient. They are no concomitant syphilis or HIV infection. The chancroid is the first cause of genital ulceration in the world. Since 1991, it is the principal STD in our department. It spreads within a male population, young singles associated with prostitutes. It is well installed in Algeria, and its role, although minor, in the transmission of the HIV infection, should not be neglected.
In a prospective clinical trial the pre- and postoperative presence of S. aureus was examined in 130 patients undergoing nasal septal surgery. The patients were randomized into three groups. The first group received no perioperative antibiotics, the second group was given oral amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, while the third group was treated with oral sulfamethoxazol and trimethoprim. A significant decrease in the incidence of S. aureus was observed in post-operative cultures, but the difference was not attributable to the antibiotic use. Overall, 18.9% of the S. aureus carriers harbored toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 positive strains. However, the decrease in the presence of S. aureus and the risk for toxic shock syndrome was not influenced by the antibiotics administered. These findings show that the routine use of oral prophylactic antibiotics for patients undergoing nasal surgery seems not indicated.
Over time, there was an increase in the proportion of the P. falciparum population that had mutations in the pfcrt, pfdhps, and pfdhfr genes associated with higher levels of chloroquine, sulfadoxine, and pyrimethamine resistance, respectively. However, the parasites collected during October 2005 had mutations associated with a lower level of pyrimethamine resistance and a higher level of sulfadoxine resistance (a rare combination), as well as a novel K540N mutation in P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase (PfDHPS). The emergence of this parasite population coincided with the widespread use of an additional antifolate drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, to treat other infections during January- March 2005. Molecular modeling revealed that the sulfadoxine binding affinity of the new PfDHPS triple mutant A436G437N540A581A613 was similar to that of A436G437E540A581A613 (bold type indicates mutated amino acids).
Using observational data we examined the effect of CPT in HIV-infected pregnant women on malaria during pregnancy, low birth weight and preterm birth using proportional hazards, logistic, and log binomial regression, respectively. We used linear regression to assess effect of CPT on CD4 count.
S. flexneri is predominant in Anhui, China, and its higher antimicrobial resistance rate compared with that of S. sonnei is a cause for concern. Continuous monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary to control the spread of resistance in Shigella. The recommendations for antimicrobial treatment must be updated regularly based on surveillance results.