trimol 160 mg
One hundred strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested by the double-disk agar diffusion method for their susceptibility to cephalothin, to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and to combinations of these drugs. Forty-five strains showed a bridging inhibition zone between the two disks, suggesting a synergistic effect of the combination of cephalothin plus sulfamethoxozole-trimethoprim against these strains. Ten of these strains were retested against the individual drugs and their combination by the twofold broth dilution method. No strain showed higher susceptibility to any combination as compared with cephalothin alone.
The objective of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations has changed since the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and whether the mutations are associated with poor outcome in Spanish HIV-1-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). We studied 167 PcP episodes in HIV-1-infected patients diagnosed during the pre-cART (1989-1995) and cART (2001-2004) periods. Molecular genotyping of DHPS was successfully performed in 98 patients (43 pre-cART and 55 cART). Seventeen patients (17/98, 17%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10-25%) had mutations in the DHPS gene: 14 patients (14/43, 33%; 95% CI, 19-49%) from the pre-cART period and 3 patients (3/55, 5.5%; 95% CI, 1.3-16%) from the cART period (P < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, the pre-cART period, previous PcP prophylaxis with sulfa drugs, and homosexuality as an HIV risk factor were found to be associated with a higher risk of presenting DHPS mutations. Overall, 95% of patients were treated with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). In-hospital mortality was similar in patients with (out) mutations (6% versus 11%, P = 0.84). DHPS gene mutations were more common during the pre-cART period and were associated with previous sulfa exposure and homosexuality. However, their presence did not worsen prognosis of PcP. The response to TMP-SMX with therapeutic doses was successful in most cases.
Reduced susceptibility to daptomycin has been reported in patients with infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although infections with daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) MRSA are infrequent, optimal therapy of these strains has not been determined. We investigated the killing effects of novel antibiotic combinations with daptomycin (DAP) against two clinical DNS MRSA isolates (SA-684 and R6003) in a 72-h in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEV). Simulated regimens included DAP at 6 mg/kg every 24 h (q24h) alone or in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) at 160/800 mg q12h, linezolid (LIN) at 600 mg q12h, cefepime (CEF) at 2 g q12h, and nafcillin (NAF) at 4 g q4h. Bactericidal activity was defined as a ≥3-log(10) CFU/g kill. Differences in CFU/g were evaluated between 4 and 72 h by analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post hoc test. DAP MICs were 4 and 2 mg/liter for SA-684 and R6003, respectively. In the PK/PD model, DAP alone was slowly bactericidal, achieving a 3-log(10) kill at 24 and 50 h for SA-684 and R6003, respectively. Against SA-684, DAP plus TMP/SMX, CEF, LIN, or NAF was bactericidal at 4, 4, 8, and 8 h, respectively, and maintained this activity for the 72-h study duration. DAP plus TMP/SMX or CEF exhibited superior killing than DAP alone against SA-684 between 4 and 72 h, and overall this was significant (P < 0.05). Against R6003, DAP plus TMP/SMX was bactericidal (8 h) and superior to DAP alone between 8 and 72 h (P < 0.001). The unique combination of DAP plus TMP/SMX was the most effective and rapidly bactericidal regimen against the two isolates tested and may provide a clinical option to treat DNS S. aureus infections.
trimol tablet price
The efficacy of orally administered trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for infection prevention following induction chemotherapy was evaluated in 43 patients with acute leukemia. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole during 20 episodes of profound granulocytopenia; 23 patients in the control group were followed through 25 granulocytopenic episodes. The incidences of superficial skin and overall infections were significantly lower in those patients with multiple relapses who received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.008); however, there was no difference between the groups in regard to days of fever, days of antibiotic administration, days of hospitalization, or gram-negative rod bacteremia. As a result of this study, this regimen cannot be unequivocally recommended for infection prevention in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction or reinduction chemotherapy.
trimol tablets uses
Cyclospora is an uncommon pathogen. The diagnosis of Cyclospora infection can be difficult because of its scarcity in developed countries, intracellular mode of life, small size of the parasite and its inability to take up routine microscopic stains. However, it is endemic in many countries in Asia, Africa, Central and South America. With the increase in travels to these areas, the number of cases is expected to increase. Moreover, it is found to be associated with numerous food-borne outbreaks.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been proven effective in the treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in lower animals and humans. How effective the drug combination is in eradicating P. carinii from the host is not known. The immunosuppressed rat model was used to determine whether or not trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole effectively eradicated the organism. Animals treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for as long as 6 weeks were then placed in individual isolator cages, immunosuppressed with prednisone for 12 weeks, and sacrificed. P. carinii was found in the lungs of at least 90% of the drug-treated as well as untreated control groups. The data indicate that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has a limited rather than a lethal effect on P. carinii and that protection is afforded only during the period of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole administration.
trimol tablet dosage
We included randomised controlled trials that compared any antibiotic treatment against placebo or no treatment. We excluded trials that included immunocompromised participants. We considered any antibiotic treatment known to be active against Toxoplasma gondii. Antibiotic treatment could be given in any dose orally, by intramuscular injection, by intravenous infusion, or by intravitreal injection.
trimol pain pill
From January 1996 to December 1997, 200 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from 200 patients treated at National Taiwan University Hospital were serotyped and their susceptibilities to 16 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Sixty-one percent of the isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin, exhibiting either intermediate resistance (28%) or high-level resistance (33%). About two-fifths of the isolates displayed intermediate or high-level resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem. Extremely high proportions of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (82%), clarithromycin (90%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) (87%). Among the isolates nonsusceptible to penicillin, 23.8% were resistant to imipenem; more than 60% displayed resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, and carbapenems; 96.7% were resistant to erythromycin; and 100% were resistant to TMP-SMZ. All isolates were susceptible to rifampin and vancomycin. The MICs at which 50% and 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 0.12 and 1 microgram/ml, respectively, for cefpirome, and 0.12 and 0.25 microgram/ml, respectively, for moxifloxacin. Six serogroups or serotypes (23F, 19F, 6B, 14, 3, and 9) accounted for 77.5% of all isolates. Overall, 92.5% of the isolates were included in the serogroups or serotypes represented in the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. The incidence of macrolide and TMP-SMZ resistance for S. pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan in this study is among the highest in the world published to date.
To estimate the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children<5 years of age living in a rural area of southern Mozambique.