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The effectiveness of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (A/Cl) and trimetoprim (TMP) were compared in two different schedules: 10 days treatment and monodose, in 80 patients with, urinary tract infection (UTI) demonstrated by urine culture. The patients over 65 years, the males and those with underlying risk conditions randomly received A/Cl or TMP during 10 days. The rates of cure were 76.9% for A/Cl and 73.9% for TMP. The difference was not significant. Thirty-one patients without those features randomly received a short A/Cl course or a single dose of TMP. The rates of cure were 92.8% for A/Cl and 58.8% for TMP. The difference was statistically significant. It was concluded that, in our patients, complicated lower UTI have a similar response rate to a ten days course of A/Cl or TMP, whereas A/Cl for three days is more effective than a single TMP dose to treat noncomplicated lower UTI.
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In an attempt to determine the susceptibility breakpoints for amoxycillin, co-amoxiclav and cefotaxime in pneumococcal pneumonia, a neutropenic mouse model was established and tested with two strains having different susceptibility to penicillins and cefotaxime. With a penicillin-sensitive strain (MIC/MBC = 0.01/0.01 mg/L) the minimum dosage tested achieving significant cure was 2 mg/kg for amoxycillin, co-amoxiclav and cefotaxime. For the penicillin-insensitive strain (MIC/MBC = 1/2 mg/L), the minimum dosage tested giving significant cure was 50 mg/kg for amoxycillin and co-amoxiclav but 100 mg/kg for cefotaxime. Our results support the belief that MICs of amoxycillin, co-amoxiclav and cefotaxime for pneumococcal strains of < or = 0.5 or < or = 1 mg/L can be considered as clinically relevant susceptibility breakpoints.
Co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg twice daily was at least as effective clinically as co-amoxiclav 875/125 mg three times daily in the treatment of CAP. Although few patients in this study had PRSP infection, 3/3 were successfully treated with co-amoxiclav 2000/125 mg.
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Two categories of patients were identified; those who completed the course of antibiotics prescribed post-surgery and patients who failed to conform to antibiotic prescription. Sepsis developed in the non-compliance group much earlier than in the group that complied (p<0.001). Infections were polybacterial with aerobes accounting for 77.4% (alpha-haemolytic streptococci 29.0%, Streptococcus pyogenes 16.1%, Staphylococcus aureus 16.1%, diphtheroids 9.7%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6.5%) and anaerobes 22.6% (Porphyromonas gingivalis 9.7%, Peptostreptococcus spp. 6.5%, Prevotella melaninogenica 3.2%, Clostridium perfringens 3.2%). Mixed aerobic and anaerobic aetiology occurred more in osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from a case of osteosarcoma with necrotic tissues. The anaerobic bacteria were 100% sensitive to metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and augmentin, 65-85% sensitivity to ampicloxacillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin. Over 92% of the streptococci were sensitive to the beta-Lactams contrast low susceptibility with S. aureus and K. pneumoniae.
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The discovery of penicillin was announced over 60 years ago. It was the first beta-lactam antibiotic and the importance of this group is greater today than it has ever been. It is clear that even at 60 years of age, beta-lactams are going strong and no one contemplates their early retirement. Currently, sales of beta-lactam compounds form the largest share by far of the world's antibiotic market. The beta-lactam antibiotics include penicillins such as penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, cloxacillin, and piperacillin; cephalosporins such as cephalothin, cephaloridine, cephalexin, and cefaclor; and cephamycins such as cefoxitin. In addition, beta-lactam antibiotics include the more recently developed nonclassical structures such as monobactams, including aztreonam; clavulanic acid, which is a component of the combination drug augmentin; and thienamycin, which is chemically transformed into imipenem, a component of the combination drug known as primaxin (or tienam). The classical beta-lactam antibiotics can be divided into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fermentation products. The hydrophobic members, e.g. benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) and phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V), contain non-polar side chains, e.g. phenylacetate and phenoxyacetate, respectively, and are made only by filamentous fungi; the best known of these is Penicillium chrysogenum. The antibacterial spectrum of the hydrophobic penicillins is essentially Gram-positive. The hydrophilic types are penicillin N, cephalosporins and 7-alpha-methoxycephalosporins (cephamycins) which are made by fungi, actinomycetes and unicellular bacteria. They all contain the polar side chain, D-alpha-aminoadipate. We can draw a sequence of reactions which describes the biosynthesis of all penicillins and cephalosporins, however the total sequence exists in no one microorganism. All penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathways possess the first three steps in common and all cephalosporin pathways go through deacetylcephalosporin C. However, there are many subsequent biosynthetic reactions which vary in the different producing organisms. Production of beta-lactam antibiotics occurs best under conditions of nutrient imbalance and at low growth rates. Nutrient imbalance can be brought about by limitation of the carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus source. In addition to these factors, amino acids such as lysine and methionine exert marked effects on production of penicillins and/or cephalosporins by some microorganisms. Induction of some of the synthetases, especially the first enzyme, ACV synthetase, by methionine is the basis of the methionine stimulation of cephalosporin C synthesis in C. acremonium. Inhibition of homocitrate synthase is the mechanism involved in lysine inhibition of penicillin synthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the lateral advanced flap in root-coverage procedures for mandibular incisors and to evaluate pain after treatment. A total of 15 patients who required treatment for gingival recessions were selected from the University of Genoa Laser and Restorative Dentistry Department. The inclusion criteria were the presence of at least one 3-mm gingival recession defect of a mandibular incisor and 3 mm or more of keratinized tissue width on the immediately adjacent tooth. One calibrated masked examiner performed the clinical measurements, including recession depth and width, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and keratinized tissue width. Patients were checked 7, 14, and 30 days after surgery and were included in supportive periodontal maintenance every 4 months. Further follow-ups were done at the first, third, and fifth year postsurgery when the same baseline assessment parameters were recorded according to the root-coverage esthetic score (RES). Numeric score recorded pain evaluations showed a mean of 3 at the day of the surgery, 2 in the first day after the surgery, and no significant scores were referred in the following days. Mean recession depth was 3.2 ± 1.3 mm at baseline; at 5 years, RES showed a positive increase of all scores. The laterally coronally advanced surgical technique was very effective in treating isolated gingival recessions. It combined the esthetic and root-coverage advantages of the coronally advanced flap with the increased gingival thickness and keratinized tissue associated with the lateral gingival flap.
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A 75-year-old man receiving long-term warfarin therapy developed a lower respiratory tract infection with paroxysmal coughing that was treated with oral amoxicillin 250 mg/clavulanate potassium 125 mg TID for 7 days. In the 3 days after completing antibiotic treatment, he developed increasingly severe lower abdominal pain that was clinically diagnosed as RSH. The patient was admitted to the local hospital for confirmation of the diagnosis and appropriate management. Before this episode, his INR was consistently within therapeutic range (2-3); on admission it had risen to 5.7. His condition was managed conservatively, and he was discharged home 6 days postadmission.
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A 32-year-old man presented with dyspnoea, tachypnoea and non-productive cough of 2 h duration that started immediately following an attempt to blow fire using paraffin as the volatile substance. He was discharged from the emergency ward but returned the next day presenting again with dyspnoea accompanied by mid-sternal pain, fever (38.1 degrees C) and leucocytosis. Chest radiography showed perihilar punctuate infiltrations. A diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by paraffin was made, and the patient was treated, with full recovery within a week.
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Women were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg twice daily) or ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily) for 3 days and were followed up for 4 months.
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To find out whether the frequency of postoperative infectious and inflammatory complications (IC) in subjects treated with placebo (Pl) is greater than those treated with antibiotic (Ab) after extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar (M3). Our hypothesis is there are more IC in Pl than in Ab, with a maximum ratio difference of 0.067.