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More species were detected in patients with disease (GR or RP) than in those without disease (PH). Subjects with RP were distinguished from GRs or those with PH by a significantly higher frequency of putative periodontal pathogens, such as Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., and Eikenella corrodens, as well as unusual species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon [OT] 346/356, Bacteroidetes sp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium timidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, and Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) (P <0.05). Species that were more prevalent in subjects with PH than in patients with periodontitis included Actinomyces sp. OT 170, Actinomyces spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa/mucilaginosa, and Streptococcus sanguinis (P <0.05).
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The prevalence of metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains remained static whilst the prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant strains was not rare in Hong Kong. An alarming 7.2% of patients were resistant to both the antimicrobials, which had a definite impact on treatment success. All cases of resistance to clarithromycin were due to A2144G mutation in 23S rRNA of H. pylori.
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Helium is a more efficient cryogen than nitrogen, and for macromolecular data collection at high-flux beamlines will deliver lower temperatures. An open-flow helium cryostat developed at the University of Toledo (the Pinkerton Device) has been used for macromolecular data collection. This device differs from standard commercial He cryostats by having a much narrower aperture providing a high velocity stream of He around the crystal that maximizes convective and conductive heat exchange between the crystal and the cryogen. This paper details a series of experiments conducted at the IMCA-CAT 17ID beamline using one crystal for each experimental condition to examine whether helium at 16 K provided better radiation-damage abatement compared with nitrogen at 100 K. These studies used matched high-quality crystals (0.94 A diffraction resolution) of D-xylose isomerase derived from the commercial material Gensweet SGI. Comparisons show that helium indeed abates the indicators of radiation damage, in this case resulting in longer crystal diffractive lifetimes. The overall trend suggests that crystals maintain order and that high-resolution data are less affected by increased radiation load when crystals are cooled with He rather than N(2). This is probably the result of a lower effective temperature at the crystal with concomitant reduction in free-radical diffusion. Other features, such as an apparent phase transition in macromolecular crystals at lower temperatures, require investigation to broaden the utility of He use.
All patients with previous H. pylori treatment failure after a clarithromycin-metronidazole +/- amoxicillin combination plus acid suppression were given lansoprazole 30 mg twice a day (bid), tripotassiumdicitratobismuthate 240 mg bid, tetracycline 1 g bid, metronidazole 400 mg (PPI-B-T-M) three times a day (tid) for 1 week. In the case of treatment failure with this second-line therapy, the same regimen was applied for 1 week except for using furazolidone 200 mg bid (PPI-B-T-F) instead of metronidazole (sequential study design).
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AAL are common, but poorly documented in hospital records. Patients with AAL are significantly more likely to require alternative antibiotics and hospital readmissions. There may be a role for antibiotic allergy delabelling to mitigate the clinical and economic burdens for patients with invalid allergy labels.
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We found that high median levels of Gardnerella vaginalis and low median levels of Lactobacillus crispatus were significantly predictive of SPTB. Slightly higher levels of Megasphaera-like species were also found among the group of women experiencing a SPTB during the follow-up period.
Ovid MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched using keywords relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of CDI in adults. Articles published between January 1978 and October 31, 2014, were selected for inclusion based on targeted keyword searches, manual review of bibliographies, and whether the article was a guideline, systematic review, or meta-analysis published within the past 10 years. Of 4682 articles initially identified, 196 were selected for full review. Of these, the most pertinent 116 articles were included. Clinical trials, large observational studies, and more recently published articles were prioritized in the selection process.
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Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. The treatment of periodontal disease includes scaling and root planning (SRP) associated with proper oral hygiene. However, some patients may have negative responses to different therapeutic procedures, with a continuous loss of insertion, so the use of antimicrobials is needed as an adjuvant to SRP treatment. The use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as tetracycline and metronidazole, as an aid in periodontal treatment has also been a factor for the development of superinfections by resistant bacteria and Candida species, even in patients with HIV. In the dental practice, the most commonly used antifungals are nystatin and fluconazole. However, the introduction of new drugs like the next generation of azoles is essential before the onset of emergent species in periodontal disease. Plants are good options for obtaining a wide variety of drugs. This alternative could benefit a large population that uses plants as a first treatment option. Plants have been used in medicine for a long time and are extensively used in folk medicine, because they represent an economic alternative, are easily accessible and are applicable to various diseases. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining the presence of Candida sp. in periodontal pockets, the conventional antifungal resistance and new therapies that include natural antifungal agents are reviewed.
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Fifty patients were randomly assigned to receive routine antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment alone (control patients) or a combination of micronized purified flavonoid fraction with identical antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment (micronized purified flavonoid fraction patients). The evolution of symptoms (pain, tenesmus, pruritus, and bleeding) during the postoperative period was assessed by means of patients' self-questionnaires. Each symptom was scored on a graded severity scale from 0 to 3, daily during the first three days of the immediate postoperative period, then at regular intervals (about every 14 days) until postoperative day 60. A global score for evaluation of each postoperative symptom and bleeding was used. The global score for each symptom was the sum of scores for each patient over the study period. The global score for each symptom was compared between the two groups with the Mann-Whitney U test.
Over a one-year period (November 1996 to November 1997), in the Emergency Surgery Clinic perioperative parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis during colorectal operations is performed in a series of 32 patients, admitted on an emergency and deferred urgency basis, or for routine operative treatment. Of them 30 present malignant processes involving colon and rectum, and two--inflammatory diseases. All patients receive single i.v. injections with Cephalothin/Cefazolin at dose 2.0 g and Metronidazole 0.5 g immediately after anesthesia induction. In nine cases additional early treatment is necessitated--within 24 hours after the operative intervention--by administration of the same drug combination 4 times at 6-hour intervals, and in another two prophylaxis is substituted for continuous 5-day treatment using the same therapeutic scheme. In 30 patients the postoperative period runs a course free of noteworthy complications. In two instances there is evidence of operative wound suppuration, and in further two--urinary tract infection development unrelated to the antibiotic prophylaxis applied. The specific features characterizing the application of antibiotic prophylaxis during colorectal surgery are discussed, and appropriate drug therapy schemes are recommended, consistent with worldwide and Bulgarian experience along this line, as well as with the concrete hospital and economical conditions in this country. Special emphasis is laid on two aspects: optimization of the timing of antibiotic agent/agents injection, and reaching peak serum and tissue bactericidal concentrations in the immediate vicinity of the surgical incision; optimization of the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis on the ground of well established indications for the application of antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery in compliance with the dynamic patterns of intra- and postoperative septic risk. The modest number of patients subjected to updated parenteral perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis does not warrant a definitive interpretation of the data from the comparative clinical and pharmaco-economical analyses performed. Nevertheless, the preliminary results point to the economical expedience of the therapeutic approach suggested.