Antibiotics generally are recommended to treat hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE). Inappropriate use of antibiotics may promote risk of antimicrobial resistance and unnecessary adverse drug reactions. The necessity of antimicrobial therapy in dogs with HGE has not been demonstrated.
The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of occurrence of bacterial pathogens with beta-lactamase activity, and pattern of resistance among aerobic and anaerobic strains isolated from: respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin and soft tissues (hospitalized patients) and throat swabs (ambulatory patients). The study was conducted in 1994 year in 6 bacteriological laboratories in four Polish towns (Warszawa, Kraków, Katowice, Gdańsk) according to the protocol. Sensitivity of bacteria was tested by the disc method on the Müeller-Hinton agar or chocolate agar according to NCCLS, activity of beta-lactamase was tested with nitrocephin. A total 2038 clinical strains--1869 aerobic and 169 anaerobic was well-defined and tested for susceptibility to ten antibiotics--amoxicilin, augmentin, ofloxacin, gentamycin, cefradin, erythromycin, cefuroxim, kotrimoxazol, cefalexin and cefaclor. Among the isolated aerobes Staphylococcus aureus (25.1%), E. coli (23.2%) and Haemophilus influenzae (14.0%) were most frequent, and in the group of anaerobes the most frequent were Bacteroides spp (40.8%) We have found 45.8% of all tested aerobic strains with beta-lactamase production, the highest proportion in pathogens isolated from respiratory tract--51.4%, 46.6% from urinary tract, and 48.4% from skin and soft tissues. Among the isolated anaerobic--68.8% of Bacteroides and 28.6% others produced beta-lactamase. Forty percentage of all strains were sensitive to amoxicilin, 70-90% of aerobic bacteria were sensitive to augmentin. Augmentin had a high activity against anaerobic bacteria too. Only a small proportion of the tested aerobic bacteria (12.2%) were resistant to ofloxacin, gentamycin showed a sufficient activity against tested strains (24.4% were resistant). The most frequent pathogen--Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to amoxicilin in 83.1% hospitalized patients, and in 73.9% in ambulatory patients.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function in a poorly controlled adult insulin-dependent diabetic patient (IDDM) with severe recurrent periodontitis, while describing the microbiological and clinical findings. Chemotaxis, superoxide production, and phagocytosis and killing of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis by the IDDM PMN were evaluated 1 week before treatment relative to a healthy, matched control. These analyses revealed a significant (P less than .05) depression in the number of IDDM PMNs migrating along an FMLP gradient (Boyden chamber assay). In addition, a significant (P less than .05) enhancement of IDDM PMN superoxide production in response to opsonized zymosan (cytochrome C reduction) was observed. Phagocytosis and killing (fluorochrome phagocytosis assay) by IDDM PMN of two P. gingivalis strains was also impaired significantly (P less than .05). The subgingival microflora contained significant levels of P. gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Peptostreptococcus micros. Periodontal treatment consisted of extraction of hopeless teeth, scaling and root planing and 3 weeks of Augmentin therapy. The antibiotic therapy resulted in unrecoverable numbers of the putative pathogens and a reduction in both gingival inflammation and disease progression. The IDDM healing response to previous surgical treatment and extractions was poor, presumably due to a marked thrombocytopenia (91 x 10(3) platelets/mm3).
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A 13-month-old boy presented with acute onset of complete atrioventricular block and wide complex tachycardia but normal hemodynamics. Endomyocardial biopsy disclosed active myocarditis with eosinophils, suggesting a hypersensitivity reaction. With no treatment, the rhythm disturbance resolved within days of onset. Our patient's presentation and self-limited illness is unique. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of eosinophilic myocarditis in a young child or infant.
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The main objectives of this study were to investigate the diversity of Campylobacter genotypes circulating in Senegal and to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance.
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Six hundred ninety-two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from blood cultures of 692 patients in 15 Israeli hospitals over a two year period. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested by the standard disk diffusion technique. Of these isolates, 41.6% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). All 288 MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and pristinomycin; 98.6% were sensitive to fucidine; 97.9% to imipenem; 79% to rifampicin; 63.6% to amikacin; 54.5% to augmentin; 36.4% to clindamycin; 12.6% to ciprofloxacin; 11.9% to cotrimoxazole and ofloxacin; 10.5% to gentamicin; 9.8% to erythromycin; and 8.4% to norfloxacin. Phage typing was determined by using the international set of phages. All the isolates that were sensitive to Group I phages, and 91.8% of those sensitive to Group II phages, were sensitive to methicillin. Of the isolates that were sensitive to Group III phages, 79.2% were methicillin-resistant and 72.4% of the latter were sensitive to phages 75/85. Of the isolates that were sensitive to Group III and miscellaneous phages, 50.7% were methicillin-resistant and 71% of the latter were sensitive to phages 75/85 as well.
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There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of positive MSUs between the groups. The incidence of infections was considerably higher than in previously published series where other antibiotics were used, suggesting that co-amoxiclav is not the drug of choice for transrectal prostatic biopsy.
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Studies involving the use of low-dose doxycycline, combinations of locally plus systemic antibiotics, or where the control group included a systemically administered antibiotic were excluded.
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Group 5 drugs can contribute to effective regimens in children with XDR and pre-XDR-TB. With proper monitoring and aggressive management of adverse effects, their safety profile might be acceptable, even in long-term use.