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Little is known about the correlation between genotype and drug susceptibility in Mycobacterium avium (Mav) strains isolated from patients with Mav infections. To examine whether drug susceptibility profile of Mav is associated with genotype, we carried out variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing and drug susceptibility testing for Mav isolates from Japanese with nodular-bronchiectasis (NB)-type and cavitary disease (CA)-type diseases. We performed M. avium tandem repeat (MATR)-VNTR typing and drug susceptibility testing by the broth dilution method, using macrolides, rifamycins, ethambutol, isoniazid, aminoglycosides, and quinolones, for Mav isolates from patients with NB and CA-type diseases (NB-Mav and CA-Mav). Based on the VNTR genotyping, the Mav strains were grouped into three clusters. There was no difference with respect to the distribution of NB-Mav and CA-Mav among the clusters. We observed a strong association between VNTR genotype and susceptibility to quinolones (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, sitafloxacin, and garenoxacin) and ethambutol. There was essentially no significant difference in drug susceptibility between NB- and CA-Mav strains, although NB-Mav was somewhat more resistant to fluoroquinolones, especially gatifloxacin, than CA-Mav. There was a significant association between VNTR genotype and susceptibility to quinolones and ethambutol in Mav isolates from Japanese patients.
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The new antimicrobial agents demonstrated in vitro activity higher than that of agents commercially available. However, more studies are necessary to further evaluate the in vivo activity and the clinical benefit of these compounds.
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To collect reliable, comparable and publicly available data on hospital use of antibiotics in Europe aggregated at the national level (1997-2002).
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These results suggest that the presence of bacteria is essential and a critical number of bacteria is required for the development of AK. The time of coexistence with bacteria may be an important determinant of the severity of AK.
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the in vitro activity of levofloxacin with the activities of ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. METHODS: The following experiments were performed: (1) comparative studies of the rate of killing by the three quinolones of different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae at a concentration corresponding to the 1-h serum level following a 500-mg dose in humans; (2) comparative studies of the rate of killing by levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the same concentrations as above; (3) comparative studies of the rate of killing by levofloxacin at four different concentrations of reference and clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. RESULTS: Levofloxacin exhibited statistically significantly higher bactericidal activity than sparfloxacin after 2 and/or 3 h against all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Compared to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin showed a statistically significantly higher bactericidal activity after 2 and/or 3 h against all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae except the one resistant to both penicillin and cefotaxime. No differences in killing rate between levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were seen against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, with almost complete killing after 3 h of the P. aeruginosa strains and after 6 h for the E. coli strains. No concentration-dependent killing was seen at concentrations above 4xMIC of levofloxacin against Staphyloccus aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin was shown to be active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In terms of MIC values, ciprofloxacin was the most active drug against the Gram-negative organisms, and sparfloxacin against the strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, but levofloxacin exhibited a similar or even better bactericidal activity against the investigated strains compared with the other two fluoroquinolones when killing curves were compared.
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During 2004 four Italian Laboratories assessed the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis in female out-patients. A total of 600 urine samples from individuals aged 18-65 were studied. The overall prevalence of Escherichia coli was 85.3%. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and other rarer species were far less represented. Determination of the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the entire collection of E. coli (512 organisms) revealed that among the drugs analyzed ampicillin was the least active molecule with only 62.5% of the strains being inhibited. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefuroxime displayed a higher potency (87.7% and 89.2% respectively). Cotrimoxazole inhibited only 70.1% of the uropathogens. The three fluoquinolones tested had comparable activity ranging from 83.0% for ciprofloxacin, to 83.6% for levofloxacin and 84.9% for prulifloxacin, indicating an identical spectrum of cross resistance. Nitrofurantoin (96.7%) and fosfomycin (98.6%) were the most potent drugs. Against the whole collection of uropathogens, only cefuroxime, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin overcame the threshold of 90% activity, with the fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin-clavulanate suffering from about 15% resistance. The results of this survey strongly support the conclusions of recent Italian guidelines concerning the best empiric treatment of UTI in this country today.
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We report a case of 25 years old male patient with antitubercular drugs induced exanthematous reaction and hepatotoxicity that was complicated by levofloxacin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. The patient was allergic to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Cross reactivity between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin might be responsible for causing this reaction. Issues of cross sensitivity should be kept in mind and the same class of drugs should strictly be avoided to prevent such complications.
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In order to use pharmacokinetic data to optimize the treatment of critically ill patients, critical appraisal of the causative pathogen, the location of the infection, and the source of the used pharmacokinetic data is necessary.
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Clinical manifestation and treatment of patients with definite DIL were retrospectively analyzed.