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Of the GPs, 129/395 (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 28 to 37%) were carriers of S. aureus. No meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found. Resistance was observed to penicillin (71%; 95% CI = 63 to 79%), fusidic acid (7%; 95% CI = 3 to 13%), and clarithromycin (6%; 95% CI = 3 to 12%). In 72% of the isolates, an MRSA-related genotype of S. aureus was found.
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The effects of immediate testing for C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) on physicians' choices of antibiotic was investigated in patients with acute infection. Acutely febrile new outpatients were randomised into two groups: group 1 (147 patients) underwent CRP and WBC testing before initial consultation (advance testing). Prescriptions were compared with those in group 2 (no advance testing; 154 patients).
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Bilateral acute depigmentation of the iris is a new clinical entity. Iris transillumination and sphincter paralysis are recognised adverse effects of oral antibiotic therapy, but to our knowledge no other publication has referred to uveitis-like syndrome due to oral administration of clarithromycin.
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A 12-day course of low dose of rifabutin with an increased dose of amoxicillin and pantoprazole is well-tolerated and highly effective against dual-resistant H. pylori infection after failure of triple therapy.
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A rabbit model for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis was used to compare 28-day combination antibiotic therapy using oral rifampin (40 mg/kg, twice daily) plus oral azithromycin (50 mg/kg, once per day), oral clarithromycin (80 mg/kg, twice daily), or parenteral nafcillin (30 mg/kg, four times daily). The left tibial metaphysis of New Zealand White rabbits was infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Grades 3 to 4 osteomyelitis (according to the Cierny-Mader classification system) development in the rabbits was confirmed radiographically. After antibiotic therapy regimens of 28 days, all tibias from controls that were infected but left untreated (n = 10) revealed positive cultures for Staphylococcus aureus at a mean concentration of 2.8 x 10(4) colony forming units/g bone. The rifampin plus clarithromycin (n = 15) and rifampin plus azithromycin (n = 15) groups showed significantly lower percentages of positive Staphylococcus aureus infection (20% and 13.3%, respectively) and bacterial concentrations (3.5 x 10(1) and 1.75 x 10(1) colony forming units/g bone, respectively). The osteomyelitic tibias of the nafcillin plus rifampin treated group (n = 7) showed no detectable Staphylococcus aureus infection (significantly lower than controls). The differences observed for bone bacterial concentrations and sterilization percentages between the antibiotic treated groups were not statistically significant. Although fluoroquinolones (including ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) are the agents usually prescribed with rifampin, increasing resistance has been observed. Although macrolides traditionally are not used in the treatment of osteomyelitis, the results of this study indicate that azithromycin and clarithromycin may be attractive partners for rifampin for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis in humans.
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Acquired resistance of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole and clarithromycin has been reported, with metronidazole resistance being very common. This has an important clinical impact on dual therapies, as well as on the standard triple therapies. However, when antisecretory drug based triple therapies with amoxycillin or clarithromycin and metronidazole are used, the resistance can be overcome in up to 75% of the cases in most of the studies. Clarithromycin seems to be a better choice than amoxycillin to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, resistance to metronidazole remains a risk factor for treatment failure. The most precise information comes from studies in which minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are reported as well as whether the strain is susceptible or resistant. Few data are available from clinical trials to measure the impact of clarithromycin resistance. However, such resistance seems to have a negative impact on the clinical outcome of treatment. It is of greater importance that H pylori resistance is closely monitored in the future.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation and chronic lung infection associated with biofilm formation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. There is thus an urgent need to develop alternative ways to treat biofilm-associated clinical infections. A kinetic study of twice-daily co-administration of the antibiotics tobramycin and clarithromycin was performed over 28 days on 12-day-old mature P. aeruginosa biofilms formed on microplate pegs for 23 clinical isolates of various phenotypes and genotypes to simulate the treatment of CF patients with inhaled tobramycin through aerosolisation (TOBI). Drug activity was assessed by enumeration of persistent bacteria before, during and after treatment. A mature (12-day-old) biofilm model was chosen because a previous study suggested that such a biofilm was a more realistic in vitro model than a 24-h-old biofilm. Synergistic activity of the drug combination was confirmed on biofilms of 9/23 P. aeruginosa isolates. Of these nine isolates, total destruction of the biofilm was observed for five of them. Combination treatment was superior or equivalent to treatment with tobramycin alone, as activity was observed on 47.8% of the isolates with the combination versus 26.1% with tobramycin alone. No correlation was observed between drug susceptibility profiles and the phenotype or genotype of the isolates.
Onset of symptoms of infection occurred after a mean of 20 days (range, 11 days-6 weeks) after LASIK or an enhancement procedure. Definitive diagnosis was obtained after a mean period of 4.5 weeks (range, 12 days-8 weeks) from onset. Keratitis resolved within 8.4 weeks (range, 1-18 weeks) of treatment with fortified clarithromycin and amikacin. Corticosteroids were found to worsen and prolong the course of disease. In four of five eyes the LASIK flap was amputated.