Cattle that shed more than 10(4) cfu/g of Escherichia coli O157 in feces have been described as super shedders (SS) and are thought to have major impacts on prevalence and transmission of this organism. Two Southern Alberta commercial feedlots (feedlot X, 7 pens averaging 183 steers; feedlot Y, 5 pens averaging 153 steers) were sampled from May 2007 to January 2008. Background samples [fecal pat (FP) water, ropes] were taken weekly from each pen for 2 wk before collection of samples from individuals [fecal grab (FG); perineal swab] at 2 different times [during spring and summer (S1); immediately before slaughter during fall and winter (S2)]. Immunomagnetic separation and selective media were used for detecting E. coli O157:H7. Positive FG and FP were enumerated by direct plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with 2.5 mg/L of potassium tellurite and 0.05 mg/L of cefixime. Five sorbitol-negative colonies were agglutinated using an anti-O157 latex kit, and the proportion of positive colonies was adjusted for non-E. coli O157:H7. Overall, there were 153 (7.16%) and 10 (0.45%) SS at S1 and S2, respectively. In feedlot X, SS and penmates of SS during S1 were more likely (P < 0.01) to shed E. coli O157:H7 in their feces and have this organism on their perineum than cattle in a pen where no SS were identified. In feedlot Y, SS and penmates of SS during S1 were more likely (P < 0.01) to have E. coli O157:H7 on their perineum than those from a pen where only 1 SS was identified, but steers in only 1 pen with multiple SS were more likely (P < 0.01) to shed this organism in feces. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 was 1.85 times more likely (P < 0.01) to be detected in perineal swabs compared with FG and E. coli O157:H7 was more likely (P < 0.01) to be detected at S1 compared with S2 for all sample types. Super shedders were a larger proportion of shedding cattle in S1 than in S2, but the presence of SS increased (P < 0.01) prevalence of this organism on the perineum of cattle throughout the year. Even when SS did not increase fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7, their presence increased contamination of hides, an outcome that could have important implications for contamination of carcasses at the abattoir.
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Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae jeopardizes public health and continues to spread out to currently recommended and older antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance provides essential clues toward the modification of treatment guidelines. The aim of the study was to determine gonococcal AMR profile and trends between 2007 and 2012 and to evaluate any change in AMR profile in comparison with published trends in 2002 to 2006.
Intestinal absorption of beta-lactamine antibiotics (e.g., cefixime and cephalexin) has been shown to proceed through the dipeptide carrier system. In a previous study, nifedipine (NFP), an L-type calcium channel blocker, enhanced the absorption of cefixime in vivo but not in vitro, and it was suggested that neural mechanisms might be involved in the effect of NFP. The aim of the present study was to assess the involvement of the nervous system on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CFX). To investigate this, we used a single-pass jejunal perfusion technique in rats. NFP and diltiazem enhanced approximately 2-fold the plasma levels of CFX in treated rats versus untreated controls. NFP also increased approximately 2-fold the CFX level in portal plasma and increased urinary excretion of CFX, thus indicating that CFX did effectively increase CFX intestinal absorption. Perfusing high concentrations of dipeptides in the jejunal lumen competitively reduced CFX absorption and inhibited the enhancement of CFX absorption produced by NFP. Hexamethonium and lidocaine inhibited the effect of NFP, whereas atropine, capsaicin, clonidine, and isoproterenol enhanced CFX absorption by the same order of magnitude as NFP. Thus, complex neural networks can modulate the function of the intestinal di- and tripeptide transporter. Sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, intestinal sensory neurons, and nicotinic synapses are involved in the increase of CFX absorption produced by NFP.
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The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme performs antimicrobial resistance surveillance and is coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. This study used epidemiological and behavioral data combined with the gonococcal susceptibility profiles to determine risk factors associated with harboring resistant gonococci in Europe.
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The spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi has been only partially defined. In the present study the effectiveness of 12 antimicrobials, belonging to six different antibiotic classes have been tested against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (N=3), Borrelia garinii (N=3), Borrelia afzelii (N=3), Borrelia valaisiana (N=1), and Borrelia bissettii (N=1) isolates. These isolates were analysed by a new standardised colorimetric minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method based upon colour changes that result from actively metabolizing spirochaetes after 72 h of incubation. Piperacillin (MIC90: 0.08 mg/l), ceftriaxone (MIC90: 0. 04 mg/l), cefotaxime (MIC90: 0.15 mg/l), azithromycin (MIC90: 0.015 mg/l), roxithromycin (MIC90: 0.05 mg/l) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90: 0.12 mg/l) gave the lowest MIC values. Minimal inhibibitory activity of amoxycillin (MIC90: 1.04 mg/l), cefixime (MIC90: 1.33 mg/l), cefoperazone (MIC90: 0.83 mg/l) tetracycline (MIC90: 0.29 mg/l) and minocycline (MIC90: 0.30 mg/l) was slightly lower, whereas borrelia were resistant to amikacin (MIC90: >128 mg/l). Mean minimal borreliacidal concentrations (MBCs) were representatively determined for piperacillin (MBC: 1.8 mg/l), ceftriaxone (MBC: 2.0 mg/l), azithromycin (MBC: 0.82 mg/ml), roxithromycin (MBC: 1.8 mg/l), quinupristin/dalfopristin (MBC: 5.0 mg/l), minocycline (MBC: 5.8 mg/l), and amikacin (MBC: >128 mg/l) by using conventional subculture for three weeks in combination with dark-field microscopy. B. garinii proved to be the most susceptible of the genospecies tested. Our study showed excellent in vitro antimicrobial activity of all classes of antibiotics tested, except the aminoglycosides and hence their suitability for therapy of Lyme disease.
An increase of the resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in urine to all antimicrobials under study has occurred, except for nitrofurantoin, being the differences statistically significant in most cases. Nevertheless, resistances to fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin have remained below 6% throughout the study period. Resistances to tobramycin and cefuroxime were slightly over 10% and cefixime below 3.4%, although in the last one we only have data until 2005. Resistances to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, initially low, have progressively increase reaching 20.6% in 2007. The same has happened for cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ampicillin, passing 32% in 2007 in the first three cases and 62% in the last one.
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The performances of three chromogenic agars were evaluated for the recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from spiked dechlorinated tap, ground and surface water, and treated drinking water samples. The chromogenic agars: ChromAgar O157 (CHROM), Rainbow Agar O157 (RB) and HiCrome EC O157 (HC) were compared to cefixime-tellurite Sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC), commonly used for the isolation of E. coli O157:H7. Confirmation of suspect E. coli O157:H7 colonies were performed by colony real-time PCR (C-RTi-PCR) based on the presence of Shiga-toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Recovery of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 from dechlorinated tap water indicated that RB and CHROM agars demonstrated improved recovery when compared to HC or CT-SMAC. There was a significant drop in recovery on all agars tested after 120h (day 5). Twenty dechlorinated tap and/or treated drinking water samples were inoculated with a pure culture of E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894), and a mixed culture of E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894), E. coli strain K-12, and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 063589). After a 48-hour holding time, the recovery using CHROM (99%) and HC (12%) from samples contaminated with the pure culture were found to be significantly different (p<0.05). Recovery results using CHROM (39%) and CT-SMAC (32%) from samples contaminated with the mixed culture after a 48-hour holding time were not significantly different (p>0.05). Analysis by C-RTi-PCR of forty five environmental water samples (surface, sewage, and final effluents) which were negative for E. coli O157:H7 showed an incidence of false suspect positive colonies of 38% (CHROM), 53% (RB), 58% (HC), and 91% (CT-SMAC). Further analysis of eight of the environmental samples inoculated with E. coli (ATCC 43894) showed 100% recovery when utilizing CHROM, 50% when using RB and 40% when using HC. In addition, the C-RTi-PCR positive confirmation rate was 100% for CHROM and HC and 65% for RB. CHROM demonstrated improved recovery of E. coli O157:H7 over RB, HC, and CT-SMAC in terms of sensitivity and specificity.
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Randomised comparisons of antibiotics with other antibiotics, placebo or no treatment to prevent recurrent UTI.