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Growth of Lactobacillus was partially inhibited at concentrations between 1000 and 4000 microg/ml (p = 0.014). Concentrations > or = 5000 microg/ml completely inhibited growth of Lactobacillus. Concentrations between 128 and 256 microg/ml stimulated growth of Lactobacillus (p = 0.025 and 0.005, respectively). Concentrations of metronidazole between 64 and 128 microg/ml or > or = 512 microg/ml did not have an inhibitory or a stimulatory effect on the growth of Lactobacillus compared to the control.
Data from the placebo group of a phase 2 trial testing monoclonal antibodies to C. difficile toxins A and B for preventing CDI recurrence (rCDI) were analyzed to assess risk factors associated with rCDI. Patients with symptomatic CDI taking metronidazole or vancomycin were enrolled. The primary outcome was rCDI within 84 days of treatment start. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between potential risk factors and rCDI. At baseline, demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded; endogenous antibody levels were assessed using 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
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Rosacea is a common chronic skin condition affecting the face, characterised by flushing, redness, pimples, pustules, and dilated blood vessels. The eyes are often involved. Frequently it can be controlled, but it is not clear which treatments are most effective.
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Treatment with OCM is as effective as the more expensive OCT at eradicating H. pylori. H. pylori eradication results in long-term relief of dyspeptic symptoms and reduced antisecretory consumption only in patients with DU, and not in those with NUD.
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Chronic anal fissures (CAFs) rarely heal with conservative management. Because they are associated with strong anal sphincter tone, most treatment aim to reduce anal pressure. Although infections can cause fissures, as can traumatic injury to the anal canal, antimicrobial treatment is not recommended. In a previous study, we reported identifying a wide spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms in the bases of CAFs, anaerobic bacteria being present in half the cases. We postulated that microbial colonization delays healing of CAF and aimed to determine whether decreasing the bacterial load with topical antibacterial treatment accelerates fissure healing.
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We have tested the entire Keio collection of close to 4,000 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility to one of seven different antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, rifampin, vancomycin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, or metronidazole). We used high-throughput screening of several subinhibitory concentrations of each antibiotic and reduced more than 65,000 data points to a set of 140 strains that display significantly increased sensitivities to at least one of the antibiotics, determining the MIC in each case. These data provide targets for the design of "codrugs" that can potentiate existing antibiotics. We have made a number of double mutants with greatly increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, and these overcome the resistance generated by certain gyrA mutations. Many of the gene knockouts in E. coli are hypersensitive to more than one antibiotic. Together, all of these data allow us to outline the cell's "intrinsic resistome," which provides innate resistance to antibiotics.
Screening of twenty five large volume parenterals including dextrose, electrolytes, mannitol, metronidazole infusions, haemodialysis solution, water for injections and distilled water for the determination of pyrogen using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test has been carried out. Out of different preparations only one metronidazole injection exhibited positive LAL test, which was found pyrogen free with USP rabbit pyrogen test.
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Computer searches were performed to identify systematic reviews or meta-analyses of treatment studies of H pylori infection. The searches included specifications for Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Europe.
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Emergence of drug resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has occurred in various countries and could compromise the efficacy of current treatment regimens. The aim of the study was to identify the pattern of antibiotic resistant H. pylori in Thailand and evaluate various factors associated with drug resistance. Between June 2001 and December 2002, a total of 560 dyspeptic patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were included in this study. Antral gastric biopsies were obtained for H. pylori cultures and susceptibility tests using Epsilometer test (E-test). The value of antibiotic resistant breakpoints were amoxicillin 0.5 microg/ml, clarithromycin 1.0 microg/ml, metronidazole 8 microg/ml, and tetracycline 4 microg/ml, respectively. H. pylori were detected in 315 patients using the rapid urease test (56.25%). Cultures for H. pylori were positive in 172 patients. E-test for all four antibiotics was successfully placed in 79 isolations. The prevalence of antibiotic resistant H. pylori were amoxicillin 13.9 per cent (11/79), clarithromycin 19.0 per cent (15/79), metronidazole 30.4 per cent (24/79), tetracycline 5.1 per cent (4/79), and multi-drugs 16.5 per cent (13/79), respectively. However, age, sex, or endoscopic findings did not differ between the patients with H. pylori resistant strains and sensitive strains. The emergence of antibiotic and multi-drug resistant H. pylori in Thailand were relatively high and these could compromise the efficacy of current treatment regimens. The factors associated with drug resistant H. pylori could not be demonstrated in the present study. Further study in a larger number of patients might be necessary to identify factors associated with resistant H. pylori.