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A MEDLINE search was used to identify pertinent literature, including reviews.
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The case of a patient with a newly diagnosed HIV infection and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is presented. Despite treatment with high-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) and prednisone with initial improvement, the patient acutely deteriorated with severe acidosis and died on the 4th day of hospitalization. Cryptococcus neoformans grew the next day in broncheoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood culture. As simultaneous presence of more than one opportunistic infection can occur in these patients, systematic workup for other common opportunistic infections must be performed.
Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infections can lead to serious disease and death in humans. Although the ecology of EcO157 is complex, ruminant animals serve as an important reservoir for human infection. Dairy cattle are unique because they may be a source of contamination for milk, meat, and manure-fertilized crops. Foodborne dairy pathogens such as EcO157 are of primary importance to public health. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a complex phenomenon that complicates the treatment of serious bacterial infections and is of increasing concern. In the face of recommended use restrictions for antimicrobial agents in livestock operations, current AMR patterns in known foodborne pathogens should be documented. The objective of this study was to document AMR patterns in EcO157 isolates from dairies in northern Colorado using antimicrobial agents commonly found on dairies and representative of medically important antimicrobial drug classes. Seventy-five EcO157 isolates were recovered from three dairies. Six isolates were resistant to at least 1 of the 10 tested antimicrobial agents: four were resistant to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline; one was resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline; and one was resistant to only tetracycline. All resistant isolates were from a single dairy. Overall, a low prevalence (8%) of AMR was observed among the 75 EcO157 isolates. No significant effects on AMR profiles due to virulence genes, parity, or previous antimicrobial treatments within the current lactation period were detected. The results of this study provide background information for future comparative studies investigating AMR trends. Future studies should include more participating farms and more samples and should control for potential confounding factors of AMR that may underlie individual farm variation.
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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is an increasingly important group of community pathogens worldwide. These organisms are frequently resistant to many of the antimicrobial agents usually recommended for the treatment of infections caused by E coli, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Data concerning risk factors, clinical features, and therapeutic options for such infections are scarce.
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Determination of treatment protocols for infections according to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results is are important for controlling the problem of antibiotic resistance. Two standards are widely used in the world. One of them is Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards used in Turkey for many years and the other is the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards which is used in European Union member countries and came into use in 2015 in Turkey. Since the EUCAST standards had higher clinical sensitivity limits particularly for gram-negative bacilli compared to CLSI (2009) standards, there will be some changes in antibiotic resistance profiles of Turkey with the use of EUCAST. CLSI has changed zone diameters after 2009 versions and the differences between the two standards were brought to a minimum level. Knowledge of local epidemiological data is important to determine empirical therapy which will be used in urinary tract infections (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the differences of antibiotic susceptibility zone diameters based on our local epidemiological data among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates according to EUCAST 2014 and CLSI 2014 standards. A total of 298 E.coli strains isolated from urine samples as the cause of uncomplicated acute UTI agents, were included in the study. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and with BBL Crystal E/NF ID System (Becton Dickinson, USA). AST was performed with Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and results were evaluated and interpreted according to the CLSI 2014 and EUCAST 2014 standards. According to the results, susceptibility rates of isolates against amikacin (100%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63.09%) were identical in both standards. However, statistically significant differences were observed between CLSI and EUCAST standards in terms of susceptibilities against gentamicin (91.95% and 84.56%, respectively; p= 0.004), cefuroxime axetil (20.13% and 77.18%, respectively; p= 0.000) and levofloxacin (73.83% and 67.11%, respectively; p= 0.044). No statistically differences between two standards for ampicillin (32.89% and 36.24%, respectively; p= 0.219), ampicillin-sulbactam (65.77% and 69.13%, respectively; p= 0.216), ciprofloxacin (72.48% and 71.14%, respectively; p= 0.392) and imipenem (94.63% and 95.30%, respectively; p= 0.426) were determined. In this transitional period, continuity of cooperation between the clinician and microbiology laboratory should be kept forefront and the maintenance of local surveillance studies should be provided by taking into account the changes in antibiotic susceptibility results.
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The Certican Consensus Conference has produced guidelines to help physicians apply Certican (everolimus) clinical trial data in clinical practice. Everolimus is indicated in combination with cyclosporine microemulsion (CsA; Neoral) and corticosteroids for prophylaxis of acute rejection after heart transplantation. It has also shown efficacy for prevention of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Further indications for use pertain to patients with chronic renal failure, to allow reduced calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure; reduce the risk of cytomegalovirus to disease; second transplantation; heart/lung transplantation after occurrence of bronchiolitis obliterans; and in patients with malignancies under immunosuppression. Contraindications include intolerance, severe leukocytopenia and severe thrombocytopenia. The everolimus dose is 0.75 or 1.5 mg twice daily, adjusted according to trough blood levels. Target blood levels are 3 to 8 ng/ml, with 6 to 8 ng/ml considered the optimal range for most patients. Recommended CsA trough blood levels in patients receiving everolimus are 150 to 175 ng/ml for Months 1 to 3 post-transplant, around 135 ng/ml for Months 3 to 6, and <100 ng/ml after Month 6. It may be possible to discontinue steroids in patients receiving long-term everolimus and CsA. Early cytomegalovirus prophylaxis is recommended for patients with a high-risk mismatch, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be given to prevent Pneumocystis carinii. Everolimus dose should be reduced by about 50% if administered in conjunction with azoles or erythromycin, and increased 100% to 200% if given with rifampicin. All heart transplant recipients should receive statins unless contraindicated.
In the United States, community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as the predominant cause of skin infections. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and clindamycin are often used as first-line treatment options, but clinical data are lacking.
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Clinically driven monitoring of ART is cost-effective in most circumstances. Routine laboratory monitoring is generally not cost-effective at current prices, except possibly CD4 testing amongst adolescents initiating ART. Committing resources to ensure continued provision of cotrimoxazole in health facilities is more likely to represent an efficient use of resources.
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A novel combination of antimicrobial agents (sulfamethoxazole, 40 μg/mL; trimethoprim, 20 μg/mL; amphotericin B, 5 μg/mL; fosfomycin, 400 μg/mL; and 5-fluorouracil, 100 μg/mL) was developed for selective isolation of leptospires from contaminated samples. The growth of 16 microorganisms considered as possible contaminants during isolation of Leptospira were inhibited by this antimicrobial cocktail. In contrast, the growth of a smaller inoculum (10(1) cells per mL) of 25 Leptospira strains (representing 18 serovars/serogroups of 5 species) was not suppressed by this antimicrobial combination. This cocktail, after being incorporated into Leptospira growth medium (Korthof's), successfully detected leptospires in environmental soil and water. Based on the results, this selective medium has the potential to meet the existing need for an effective selective medium for the isolation of Leptospira.