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A total of 2,586 ADR events were recorded in 3 years, out of which 392 (15.15%) were because of antimicrobials. Male: female was 1.02:1. Medicine department contributed maximally (98.97%). The intravenous (IV) route of drug administration accounted maximum ADRs (53.32%), followed by oral route (45.41%). Monotherapy was responsible for 80.87%, whereas combination therapy for 19.13%. Combinations therapy was irrational in 79.67%. The most common antibiotic resulting in ADRs was injection ceftriaxone (35.71%), followed by tab. azithromycin (7.39%), tab. ofloxacin+ornidazol (5.35%), ofloxacin (3.57%), ciprofloxacin (2.29%), amoxicillin (2.55%), tab. cefixime (2.29%), inj. linezolid (2.04%). Rash remained the most common ADR, followed by diarrhoea and gastritis. Most common organ system involved was dermatological (47.44%), followed by gastrointestinal (GI) (39.28%), central nervous system (CNS) (5.35%), cardiovascular system (CVS) (3.57%) and renal and genitourinary (1.78%). While 47.96% ADR's were latent, 26.785% were acute and 25.26% were sub-acute. Moreover, 89.79% of ADRs were moderate in nature, whereas 26.88% were severe and 3.33% mild in nature. Furthermore, 92.86% were non-serious and 7.14% serious in nature. Also, 65.06% of antimicrobial caused ADRs were type A and 34.64% were type B reactions. As per World Health Organization-The Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO-UMC) scale, 73.98% of ADRs were probable/likely and 26.02% as possible. However, 99.47% of ADRs required intervention.
One week-quadruple therapy as a first-line treatment for H. pylori infection does not offer any advantage over PPI-based triple therapy in Korean patients.
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Our findings suggest that active surveillance programs combining both phenotypic and genetic data would help identify disease outbreaks and strengthen antibiotic management.
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We report a fast, one-step, facile, and green preparation method that yields very stable and biocompatible silver colloids that are highly active as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platforms that has a possible application in biomedicine. Reduction of silver nitrate has been carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG) which acts as both reducing agent and stabilizer. It turned out that the -OH groups provided by the addition of NaOH represent a key element in the successful synthesis of PEG-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The as-obtained silver colloids have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron spectroscopy, and SERS using 532- and 633-nm laser lines on a dispersive Raman spectrometer. Several analytes as methylene blue, p-aminothiophenol, amoxicillin, and Cu(PAR)2 were used to prove SERS enhancement of the obtained silver colloid. It has been found that the PEGylated AgNPs provide SERS signals comparable to those achieved using classical hydroxylamine and citrate-reduced silver colloids, thus demonstrating the ability of this new method to prepare biocompatible silver colloids.
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This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children 1 to 10 years of age with a clinical presentation compatible with ABS were eligible for participation. Patients were stratified according to age (<6 or >or=6 years) and clinical severity and randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (90 mg/kg) with potassium clavulanate (6.4 mg/kg) or placebo. A symptom survey was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 30. Patients were examined on day 14. Children's conditions were rated as cured, improved, or failed according to scoring rules.
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For the three clinical cases, molecular methods allowed identifying the causes of recurrent infections. We suggest to study genotype to distinguish between relapse and re-infection in order to adapt the treatment and the follow-up of patients to the nature of recurrence.
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This study was therefore conducted to find out whether the same holds in this environment. The study will also determine the resistance pattern of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates to available antibiotics.
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Amoxicillin (AMX) is a widely used penicillin-type antibiotic whose presence in the environment has been investigated. In this work, the degradation of the AMX in aqueous solutions by ozonation, ozonation with UV radiation (O3/UV), homogeneous catalytic ozonation (O3/Fe(2+)) and homogeneous photocatalytic ozonation (O3/Fe(2+)/UV) was investigated. The performance results have been compared in terms of removal of amoxicillin and total organic carbon (mineralization efficiency). In all processes, complete amoxicillin degradation was obtained after 5 min. However, low mineralization was achieved. For the best available process, the potential toxicity of AMX intermediates formed after ozonation was examined using a Fish Embryo Toxicity test (FET). Results reveal that the systems O3 in alkaline solution and O3/ Fe(2+)/UV provide the highest mineralization rates. Ecotoxicity showed that no acute toxicity was observed during the exposure period of 96 hours.
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Of the 56 patients included in the study, 27 went on to receive B-LAC, whereas 29 received B-LAA. The per protocol eradication rate was 84.6% with B-LAC and 55.5% with B-LAA (p = 0.021). Under intention to treat analysis, the eradication rates for B-LAC and B-LAA were 81% and 52%, respectively (p = 0.019). There was a significant difference between the two groups in number of subjects using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p = 0.013) and a trend toward a difference in histamine-2 (H2) blocker use (p = 0.066). Taking these two variables into account, a logistical regression was performed and continued to show a significant superiority in the B-LAC regimen (p = 0.03).
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In Japan, an eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) for peptic ulcers of stomach and duodenum was approved by a health insurance since November 1, 2000. A method of an eradication therapy is as follows. Adult patients are received lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, clarithromycin 200-400 mg at the same time twice daily for seven days. This therapy is based on a guideline of a Japanese association of Helicobacter Research. Many elderly patients have complications such as hypertension, cerebral vascular disturbance, heart failure and so on. Moreover, they often take a several medicine including NSAIDs(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Therefore, you should pay attention especially to interaction of drugs when planning an eradication therapy of H. pylori for elderly patients.