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A single trial has shown a beneficial effect from the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV infected children in Zambia. It must be decided whether this can be extrapolated to other resource-poor settings.
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Although antimicrobials are widely used in US feedlot cattle production, our results demonstrate generally low levels of resistance to a broad range of commonly used antimicrobials relative to other recent studies.
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The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has entirely changed the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and dramatically reduced the rates of opportunistic infections (OI). However, OI continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in both developed countries, where presentation with advanced HIV infection is common, and also in developing countries where ART is less widely available. Evidence to direct OI guidelines is partly limited by the fact that many large-scale studies date from the pre-ART era and more recent studies are sometimes poorly powered due to the falling rates of OI. Treatment of OI is now known to be as much about antimicrobials as about immune reconstitution with ART, and recent studies help guide the timing of initiation of ART in different infections. OI have also become complicated by the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome phenomenon which may occur once successful immune recovery begins. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has long been one of the most important antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of OI and remains paramount. It has a broad spectrum of activity against Pneumocystis jiroveci, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial infections and has an important role to play in preventing life-threatening OI. New advances in treating OI are coming from a variety of quarters: in cytomegalovirus eye disease, the use of oral rather than intravenous drugs is changing the face of therapy; in cryptococcal meningitis, improved drug formulations and combination therapy is improving clearance rates and reducing drug toxicities; and in gut disease, the possibility of rapid immune restitution with ART is replacing the need for antimicrobials against cryptosporidia and microsporidia.
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To evaluate the efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a fixed-combination antibiotic, patients with active toxoplasmosis were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS) with or without adjunctive clindamycin and prednisone for 4 to 6 weeks.
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Shigellosis is a common cause of morbidity, especially in the very young and old, in developing countries. The disease is treated with antibiotics. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance trends is essential owing to the global emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
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The resistance of uropathogenic E. coli in non-hospitalized women with diabetes mellitus is not higher than that seen in routine isolates of E. coli. This suggests that diabetes in itself is not a risk factor for resistance.
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We obtained clinical, demographic, and exposure data, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and stool samples for detection of enteric parasitic and bacterial pathogens and rotavirus.
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We performed acute and convalescent A-scan echographic ocular measurements documenting the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length of a patient with acute transient sulfamethoxazole-induced myopia. Shallowing of the anterior chamber, independent of changes in the thickness of the lens, was the only anatomic variation found that could explain the myopia. Swelling of the ciliary body, with forward movement of the lens-iris diaphragm, could produce this transient anatomic change.
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Muscular pains, arthralgias and arthritis are among the most common symptoms of the patients attending various OPDs and private clinics every day. While the symptoms could be due to a broad spectrum of the illnesses; the infection with Brucella, often overlooked, is one among such causes. The objective of present study is to determine the extent to which this infection contributes towards the presence of such symptoms, and how important it is to rule out this treatable cause in our society, before labelling and treating these as non-specific aches and pains.
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A randomized, clinical trial performed in 3 private practices.