Abscess material from 10 patients with peritonsillar abscesses was obtained by aspiration. Beside cultures and cultures in the laboratory, were performed 3-26 hours later, as well as routine nasopharyngeal and throat swab cultures. A total of 26 bacterial species were isolated from the abscess material; 19 of these were obligate anaerobes. In 4 patients a pure growth of anaerobes was found. In 3 patients a mixed aerobe/anaerobe flora was obtained. In 3 patients a pure growth of aerobes was found. Beta-hemolytic streptococci groups A and C respectively were isolated from 2 patients, but in pure culture from one patient only. The results of the nasopharyngeal and throat swab cultures showed a poor correlation to the results of cultures on aspirates. Comparison of the results of the bedside inoculation with the results of inoculation in the laboratory showed a moderate loss of bacterial species, viz. 3 of 26. All bacteria studied were susceptible to penicillin V, ampicillin and erythromycin when tested in vitro.
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There were no significant differences between HM and healthy groups in plasma AA (median 37.2 µm vs. 33.9 µm) or red blood cell GSH (1.9 mmvs. 1.8 mm). However, plasma AA was correlated significantly with leucocyte b5/b5R reduction (r= 0.39, P= 0.002). Deficient b5/b5R activities were not found in HM patients. In fact, patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or myeloma had significantly higher median activities (80.7 µmol mg(-1) min(-1)) than controls (18.9 µmol mg(-1) min(-1), P= 0.008). After 3-4 weeks of treatment, no patients developed SMX-specific T cells and only one patient developed rash.
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Randomised controlled, double blind, multicentre study in outpatient departments of seven hospitals and in one community health service. A total of 1471 children (aged 2-59 months) with non-severe pneumonia were randomly assigned to 25 mg/kg amoxicillin (n = 730) or 4 mg/kg trimethoprim plus 20 mg/kg sulphamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) (n = 741). Both medicines were given orally twice daily for five days.
Over 90% of invasive pneumococcal infections are covered by the currently available vaccines (for people over 2 years of age) and the pneumococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines under development for young children. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance observed requires more complete investigation and confirmation; however, taken from a global perspective, it supports the need to develop better control strategies, including greater use of new and existing vaccines.
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University hospital with 750 beds and 27,000 admissions/year.
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Evidence of associations between co-trimoxazole-induced SJS/TEN and HLA alleles including HLA-B*15:02, HLA-C*06:02, and HLA-C*08:01 were found in the study population. These findings may suggest that apart from the HLA molecules, other molecules involved in the molecular pathogenesis of these severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions may play an important role in the susceptibility of individuals to SJS/TEN caused by co-trimoxazole.