The effects of subinhibitory concentrations of roxithromycin (16 mg/L) or rifampicin (16 mg/L) on alginate production by Pseudomanas aeruginosa were investigated. The weight of purified alginate from antibiotic-free cultures was significantly greater (52.5 +/- 24.0 mg, range 22.4-109.5), compared with alginate from cultures bacteria exposed to sub-MIC of roxithromycin (21.9 +/- 17.0, 0.0-42.1 (P < or = 0.037)) and to sub-MIC of rifampicin (28.6 +/- 15.0, 2.9-47.5 (P < or = 0.038)). Chromatographic analysis of hydrolysed and chemically transformed sub-units of alginate revealed that the presence and the molar ratio of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid were not affected in the remnant alginate exposed to sub-MIC of roxithromycin in contrast to that in the remnant alginate exposed to sub-MIC of rifampicin.
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The objective of this study was to assess compliance with a 10-day treatment of antibiotics or placebo once-daily (OD) and three-times-daily (TD) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) using electronic monitoring, and to evaluate whether compliance depends on time since the start of treatment and weekday. Taking compliance, timing compliance, correct dosing compliance and mean interdose intervals were assessed using data from 155 LRTI patients who received either a 10-day treatment of amoxicillin TD and placebo OD or roxithromycin OD and placebo TD using a double-dummy technique. Compliance was assessed by electronic monitoring. Taking compliance was 98.0% for the OD regimen and 91.0% for the TD regimen. Correct dosing was 98.1% for the OD regimen and 91.1% for the TD regimen and timing compliance was 48.2% and 10.9%, respectively. The mean interdose interval before the first daily dose for the TD group was particularly prolonged to >13h. Correct dosing over time showed fewer patients with correct dosing compliance, reaching a low of 79% for the TD group towards the end of the 10-day treatment. Compliance was not influenced by weekday. This study adds important information to the limited evidence on compliance with antibiotics for LRTI, one of the most common reasons for consultation in primary care. Taking compliance was high for both regimens, yet timing compliance was poor. The prolonged mean interdose intervals provide striking new insights into understanding non-compliance with more-than-once-daily regimens. These findings require consideration when exploring ways to improve future compliance in short-term antibiotic treatment for respiratory tract infections.
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Heterologous mammalian gene regulation systems for adjustable expression of multiple transgenes are necessary for advanced human gene therapy and tissue engineering, and for sophisticated in vivo gene-function analyses, drug discovery, and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. The antibiotic-dependent interaction between the repressor (E) and operator (ETR) derived from an Escherichia coli erythromycin-resistance regulon was used to design repressible (E(OFF)) and inducible (E(ON)) mammalian gene regulation systems (E.REX) responsive to clinically licensed macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin). The E(OFF) system consists of a chimeric erythromycin-dependent transactivator (ET), constructed by fusing the prokaryotic repressor E to a eukaryotic transactivation domain that binds and activates transcription from ETR-containing synthetic eukaryotic promoters (P(ETR)). Addition of macrolide antibiotic results in repression of transgene expression. The E(ON) system is based on E binding to artificial ETR-derived operators cloned adjacent to constitutive promoters, resulting in repression of transgene expression. In the presence of macrolides, gene expression is induced. Control of transgene expression in primary cells, cell lines, and microencapsulated human cells transplanted into mice was demonstrated using the E.REX (E(OFF) and E(ON)) systems. The macrolide-responsive E.REX technology was functionally compatible with the streptogramin (PIP-regulated and tetracycline (TET-regulated expression systems, and therefore may be combined for multiregulated multigene therapeutic interventions in mammalian cells and tissues.
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Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of HPLC/UV chromatographic signal of roxithromycin is enhanced by cooperation of signal, noise and nonlinear system. A simple new method for the determination of low concentration of roxithromycin in beagle dog plasma is presented. Using signal enhancement by stochastic resonance, this method extends the limit of quantitation from the reported 0.5 to 0.1 microg/ml. During validation of the new method, HPLC/MS was used as a comparison technique. The results indicate that the recovery and low concentrations of roxithromycin in beagle dog plasma were equivalent between the two methods (P>0.05). Stochastic resonance may be a promising tool for improving detection limits in trace analysis.
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During a 3-year period, we retrieved the results from placental and amniotic membrane cultures obtained at delivery in cases of maternal fever, chorioamnionitis, and PPROM, and from blood cultures obtained from neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS) in three participating hospitals. Sensitivity of pathogens to antimicrobial agents was performed using routine microbiologic techniques.
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The dispensing of the six antibiotics reduced by 32% overall, from 77.1 to 52.9 defined daily doses per 1000 population per day, with statistically significant reductions in the range of 31%-70% for individual antibiotics; there was no reduction for amoxycillin with or without clavulanic acid.
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The macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin is effective against acne associated with inflammation, but the mechanism by which this is achieved has not been clarified.