The dominant bacteria were isolated from diseased fish. The pure culture of the isolated strain was analyzed using conventional physiological and biochemical tests, together with 16S rDNA gene sequencing. An experimental infection of Carassius auratus gibelio with the isolated strain was performed to fulfill the Koch postulates. K-B method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing.
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Universal quantitative models using NIR reflectance spectroscopy were developed for the analysis of API contents (active pharmaceutical ingredient) in roxithromycin and erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets from different manufacturers in China. The two quantitative models were built from 78 batches of roxithromycin samples from 18 different manufacturers with the API content range from 19.5% to 73.9%, and 66 batches erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets from 36 manufacturers with the API content range from 28.1% to 70.9%. Three different spectrometers were used for model construction in order to have robust and universal models. The root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of the model for roxithromycin tablets were 1.84% and 1.45%, respectively. The values of RMSECV and RMSEP of the model for erythromycin ethylsuccinate tablets were 2.31% and 2.16%, respectively. Based on the ICH guidelines and characteristics of NIR spectroscopy, the quantitative models were then evaluated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and model transferability. Our study has shown that it is feasible to build a universal quantitative model for quick analysis of pharmaceutical products from different manufacturers. Therefore, the NIR method could be used as an effective method for quick, non-destructive inspection of medicines in the distribution channels or open market.
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The paper describes a new and selective analytical sample treatment for quantitative extraction and preconcentration of erythromycin in presence of other macrolide antibiotics in sheep milk samples. The methodology is based on the use of a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) employed as solid phase extraction sorbent (MISPE). The synthesized material by bulk polymerization using erythromycin (ERY) as template was evaluated as solid phase extraction sorbent, in a novel sample treatment technique that can be coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). MIP selectivity was studied for other macrolide antibiotics with similar structures, such as tylosin (TYL), spiramycin (SPI), josamycin (JOS), roxithromycin (ROX) and ivermectin (IVER) getting recoveries for these interferents lower than 35%, for all cases except for ROX, which recoveries were around 85%. The variables affecting the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure were optimized to select the best conditions of selectivity and sensitivity to determine ERY at concentration levels established by EU legislation in sheep milk. Under the selected experimental conditions, quantification limit was 24.1 µg kg(-1). Recoveries were higher than 98%, with RSDs between 0.7% and 2%. The proposed MISPE-HPLC method was validated and successfully applied to ERY analysis in sheep milk samples.
We measured clinical response after 10 and 28 days, defined in 4 ways: (1) decrease in LRTI symptoms; (2) complete absence of symptoms; (3) decrease in signs; and (4) complete absence of signs. Self-reported response included the decrease in symptoms and the time until resumption of impaired or abandoned daily activities on days 1 through 10, 21, and 27.
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The in vitro susceptibilities of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, Rickettsia akari, R. conorii, R. prowazekii, and R. rickettsii to different concentrations of azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin in Vero cell cultures were evaluated. Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. were allowed to initiate infection of the antibiotic-free Vero cell monolayers, which were maintained in 16-chamber microscope slides in the absence of antibiotics at 32 degrees C in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The monolayers were then incubated for 3 h to allow for initial host cell intracellular penetration by infecting species. After inoculation, inocula were replaced and tested with media containing 12 different concentrations of each antibiotic in replicate (10 wells of each antibiotic dilution) for each species, and the monolayers were reincubated. Tetracycline served as the control. Growth status of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. was determined by evaluation of immunofluorescent staining bacilli. Five days later, when antibiotic-free, control-infected cell monolayers demonstrated significant fluorescence, media were removed for all cell monolayers, the monolayers were fixed, and all specimens were stained with standard indirect immunofluorescent antibody reagents. Fluorescent foci were enumerated by counting such foci on random fields visualized with an epifluorescence microscope. The extent of antibiotic-induced focus inhibition was recorded for each dilution of antibiotic and compared with that of an antibiotic-negative control. Effective antibiotic dilution endpoints for inhibition of Bartonella and Rickettsia proliferation, as judged by absence of increase of significant fluorescence (as compared with no-growth controls), were enumerated by determining the number of cell culture chambers at various antibiotic dilutions that were negative or positive for significant Bartonella- or Rickettsia-specific fluorescence. All of the macrolide agents tested were readily active against all three Bartonella organisms, and azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin may have potential in the treatment of Rickettsia infections. Animal model-based clinical trials are warranted to define the specific treatment role of the newer macrolide antibiotics.
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To study the relationship between endocervical mycoplasma infection and the spontaneous abortion due to the early embryonic death and the drug sensitivity to mycoplasma.