Recipients of solid organ transplantation are, because of immunosuppressive therapy, disposed to opportunistic infections including tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a rare complication after transplantation but it is serious with high mortality. We report 3 cases of spinal TB in Chinese recipients of orthotopic liver transplant whose first complaint was back pain. These 3 cases were diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and percutaneous biopsy. After treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and ethambutol for >1 year, symptoms of 2 patients improved noticeably, but 1 patient died of liver failure and severe mixed pulmonary infection. Diagnosis and treatment regimens of spinal TB are discussed.
rimstar 4fdc drug
Although the spine is a common target for osteoarticular tuberculosis (OAT), peripheral involvement in this case underlines the polymorphism of OAT in children. It illustrates a case of OAT strictly located to the synovial membranes, which usually occurs in one-third of OAT cases. In addition, MRI showed tenosynovitis of the quadriceps. The child presented with unilateral oligoarthritis instead of chronic insidious monoarthritis or symmetrical oligoarthritis as usually described in pediatric OAT. When available, MRI is the best way to evaluate OAT lesions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be isolated from sputum, gastric aspiration, and joint fluid or synovial biopsy. Histological lesions can reveal advanced tuberculosis with the presence of caseous follicular lesions. Rapid bacterial detection using polymerase chain reaction remains insufficiently useful in those situations. The recommended therapeutic regimen consists of 3 months with four antitubercular agents (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) followed by 9 months of a dual therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin).
To evaluate the inexpensive colorimetric nitrate reductase-based antibiotic susceptibility (CONRAS) assay for testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to streptomycin and ethambutol in liquid cultures, and to compare the CONRAS test with the manual mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) test, using the radiometric BACTEC 460TB method as reference.
Among 324 cases of culture-proven tuberculosis from 1988 to 1996 in a hospital in Milan, Italy, 90 (27.8%) were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Sixty-one of 69 isolates tested had identical restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. The prevalent strain tested susceptible only to ethionamide and was also resistant to ethambutol, streptomycin, cycloserine, amikacin, kanamycin, terizodone, ofloxacin, rifabutin, rifapentin, and KRM 1648. The median survival time was 94 days. Multivariate analysis showed a trend toward better outcome in the period 1994-1996 (hazard ratio, 4.16; P<.001), and extrapulmonary localization of tuberculosis was the only other independent predictor of a negative outcome (hazard ratio, 2.1; P = .019). The delay from symptoms to beginning of therapy did not seem to be a determining factor in survival time. Standard antituberculosis therapy with four drugs (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide) had a higher efficacy than did other regimens with fewer drugs but without a statistically significant difference.
rimstar medicine side effects
Alcoholism and tuberculosis often coexist, and patients with this combination have the most frequent failures of therapy. Several intriguing alternatives to standard outpatient chemotherapy are now available. The brief MAST interview (a shortened version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test) has been demonstrated to be effective in identifying alcoholism in public health clinics for tuberculosis in New Orleans and Birmingham, Ala., with scores indicating populations of alcoholic patients of 25% and 28%, respectively. The test could be administered without interrupting the routine of the clinic. We believe that the problem of inadequate therapy in the alcoholic patient with tuberculosis is significant and widespread and is not being handled well is most places. Identification of the potential problem patient at first contact will be most helpful in choosing candidates for specialized forms of therapy, including short-term and supervised treatment, begun before failure of therapy ensues.
rimstar generic name
Disease activity was monitored clinically by observing resolution of skin ulcers, lymphadenopathy, and pain and swelling in areas affected by osteomyelitis.