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Corynebacterium glutamicum wild type lacks the ability to utilize the pentose fractions of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but it is known that recombinants expressing the araBAD operon and/or the xylA gene from Escherichia coli are able to grow with the pentoses xylose and arabinose as sole carbon sources. Recombinant pentose-utilizing strains derived from C. glutamicum wild type or from the L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum strain DM1729 utilized arabinose and/or xylose when these were added as pure chemicals to glucose-based minimal medium or when they were present in acid hydrolysates of rice straw or wheat bran. The recombinants grew to higher biomass concentrations and produced more L-glutamate and L-lysine, respectively, than the empty vector control strains, which utilized the glucose fraction. Typically, arabinose and xylose were co-utilized by the recombinant strains along with glucose either when acid rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysates were used or when blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose were used. With acid hydrolysates growth, amino acid production and sugar consumption were delayed and slower as compared to media with blends of pure arabinose, xylose, and glucose. The ethambutol-triggered production of up to 93 ± 4 mM L-glutamate by the wild type-derived pentose-utilizing recombinant and the production of up to 42 ± 2 mM L-lysine by the recombinant pentose-utilizing lysine producer on media containing acid rice straw or wheat bran hydrolysate as carbon and energy source revealed that acid hydrolysates of agricultural waste materials may provide an alternative feedstock for large-scale amino acid production.
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Three groups of Balb/c mice (female, age 4-6 wk; 21 mice in each group) were infected intravenously with 106 CFU of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and two EMB resistant clinical isolates. Age and sex matched control animals were mock inoculated with Middlebrook 7H9 broth alone. At 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 days post-infection three animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and lung tissue was collected for further analysis.
Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of rifampicin, ethambutol, enviomycin and streptomycin on Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex (MAI complex) strains were determined. The susceptibility testings were made in Ogawa egg medium, and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined as the lowest concentration of drugs, in which the growth of 20 to 100 colony-forming units was completely inhibited. The MICs correspond to the MICs that can inhibit the growth of 95 to 99% of bacterial population. Bactericidal activity was determined in a modified Dubos liquid medium (1.3 g of Dubos TB Broth Base were dissolved in 180 ml of distilled water and this solution was supplemented by 20 ml of bovine serum). A one ml-sample of bacterial suspensions (10 mg wet weight per ml) was added to 9 ml of the Dubos liquid medium, and the medium was incubated at 37 degrees C for 0, 1, 3 and 7 days under shaking condition (56 strokes per minute; 8 cm amplitude). The bactericidal activity was measured as the number of colony-forming units contained in a 0.02 ml-sample of the medium. The bactericidal activities of rifampicin and ethambutol were weak or absent even in strains 13008 and 13016, which were very susceptible to all four drugs. However, the bactericidal activities of streptomycin and enviomycin could be observed in these strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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To characterize the susceptibility to levofloxacin of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) obtained from patients with HIV-related tuberculosis and to characterize the molecular genetics of levofloxacin resistance.
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A policy implemented in 2007 to restrict the prescription of fluoroquinolones was shown to be effective. Our survey revealed a decreasing trend of resistance to PZA, OFX and AM, which suggests the feasibility of adopting a short-course regimen and demonstrates the effectiveness of our management program for MDR-TB.
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Since TB is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium (M) tuberculosis the diagnosis of TB should (as far as possible) be by demonstration of M. tuberculosis on culture or acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on smear examination. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strongly recommended sputum smear examination as the preferred screening test and suggests examination of 3 deeply coughed out sputum samples - spot sample on day 1, overnight sample and a spot sample in the morning on day 2. Recently it has been shown that sputum smear positivity is greater than 90% where greater than 5 ml of sputum is used for smear diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Culture of M. tuberculosis is the gold standard for diagnosis of TB. Culture of mycobacteria is a much more sensitive test than smear examination and has been estimated to detect 10-100 viable mycobacteria per ml of sample and in case of active disease they are found to be 81% sensitive and 98.5% specific. Culture methods are also required for further drug sensitivity testing in cases of suspected drug resistant cases. Isoniazid and rifampicin resistance can be reliably measured; resistance to pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin is more difficult due to limitations of technique. The therapeutic index for a given drug is low for certain second-line drugs such as ethionamide, cycloserine, viomycin and para amino salicylic acid (PAS) and it leads to misinterpretation of results due to failure to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains. Misdiagnosis of MDR-TB due to laboratory related errors has been reported recently.
M. tuberculosis isolates were resistant to some of the usual drugs in 51 patients. Twenty of these patients had HSA (39%) and in 18 patients the antibiotic sensitivity testing showed resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. The remaining 86 patients had episodes of TB with drug-susceptible microorganism and only three patients had HSA (3%) (p < 0.001). The 23 patients with tuberculous HSA had a mean CD4+ lymphocyte count of 33 x 10(6) cells/L (2-111) and 7 had a previous episode of TB. The abdominal echography showed hepatosplenomegaly in all cases. Abscesses were located at the liver in 12 patients (52%), spleen in 18 (78%) and both organs in 7 (30%). In 16 cases a corticosteroid therapy was indicated. In the 3 patients with susceptible TB and HSA the clinical course was good. The 20 patients with resistant TB died.
A series of 11 alpha,omega-diaminoalkanes, (H(2)N(CH(2))(n)NH(2), n=2-12) have been evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Compounds, (H(2)N(CH(2))(n)NH(2), n=9-12), exhibited a very good activities in the range 2.50-3.12 microg/mL, which can be compared with that of the first line drug, ethambutol (3.12 microg/mL). These results and a preliminary QSAR study can be considered an important start point for the rational design of new leads for anti-TB compounds.
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To determine the accuracy of drug-susceptibility testing (DST) for isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in a provisional network of 22 regional laboratories in Italy.