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To examine the effect of giving antibiotics on the day of surgery (DOS) vs DOS and first postoperative day (DOS+1) for prophylaxis against surgical site infection (SSI) in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery (CCHNS).
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The 1995 guideline on pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been updated. The general practitioner should consider PID whenever a woman of childbearing age complains of lower abdominal pain; the diagnosis should then be based on 5 criteria: (a) non-acute lower abdominal pain; (b) pain on upward movement or adnexal tenderness during vaginal touch; (c) painful or swollen adnexae; (d) ESR > or = 15 mm in the 1st hour or a temperature > 38 degree C, and (e) no indications for other diseases, such as appendicitis or an extra-uterine pregnancy. In case of diagnostic doubt, a gynaecologist must be consulted. Rapid treatment with antibiotics diminishes symptoms, shortens the course of disease, and may prevent complications such as infertility or extra-uterine pregnancy. Treatment should be started with ofloxacin and metronidazole. Due to the increasing antibiotic resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, when there are indications for this pathogen the medicinal treatment should immediately be directed at it by means of cefotaxim, doxycycline and metronidazole. In his or her information to the patient, the general practitioner should devote attention to the major role of sexually transmissible micro-organisms and give advice, if necessary, regarding high-risk behaviour.
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All adults with acute epiglottitis admitted to teaching hospital over a period of 12 months were included in this retrospective study. The diagnosis of epiglottitis was eatablished by laryngoscopy and soft tissue X-ray neck lateral view.
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In the third decade of the Helicobacter pylori era several informations are available on its pathogenetic mechanisms, as well as on therapeutic approaches. A 7-14 day triple or quadruple regimens (proton pump inhibitor together with 2 antibiotics) are currently suggested as first-line treatment, but the success rate following these therapy is constantly decreasing worldwide. Therefore, new drugs are needed to treat such a widespread infection. Several patents of new antibiotics have been claimed in the last 5 years, and some of them showed a very powerful antibacterial activity in vitro, even against clarithromycin and metronidazole resistant strains. Among the new compounds, thienylthiazole derivatives, benzamide derivatives and pyloricidins should be regarded as very promising molecules.
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To compare a lansoprazole-based triple versus quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) eradication with emphasis on side effect profile, patient compliance and eradication rate at a rural district general hospital in Wales, United Kingdom.
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A green synthesis route for the production of silver nanoparticles using methanol extract from Solanum xanthocarpum berry (SXE) is reported in the present investigation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps), having a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centered at 406 nm, were synthesized by reacting SXE (as capping as well as reducing agent) with AgNO(3) during a 25 min process at 45 °C. The synthesized AgNps were characterized using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, powdered X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the time of reaction, temperature and volume ratio of SXE to AgNO(3) could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag(+) and affect the AgNps size and shape. The nanoparticles were found to be about 10 nm in size, mono-dispersed in nature, and spherical in shape. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of synthesized AgNps was tested against 34 clinical isolates and two reference strains of Helicobacter pylori by the agar dilution method and compared with AgNO(3) and four standard drugs, namely amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CLA), metronidazole (MNZ) and tetracycline (TET), being used in anti-H. pylori therapy. Typical AgNps sample (S1) effectively inhibited the growth of H. pylori, indicating a stronger anti-H. pylori activity than that of AgNO(3) or MNZ, being almost equally potent to TET and less potent than AMX and CLA. AgNps under study were found to be equally efficient against the antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains of H. pylori. Besides, in the H. pylori urease inhibitory assay, S1 also exhibited a significant inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that the mechanism of inhibition was noncompetitive.
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The 10 day bismuth quadruple therapies with high-dose metronidazole or levofloxacin were effective even in areas with high resistance. These two therapies were equally safe and tolerated. Besides this, the metronidazole-containing therapy was cheaper. So it is persuasive that high-dose metronidazole-containing quadruple therapy could be a good choice for second-line H. pylori eradication in areas with high resistance.
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We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Trials Register from inception to 26 January 2017. We also searched clinicaltrials.gov and clinicaltrialsregister.eu for ongoing trials.
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All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.