The DDD per 1000 persons per day of macrolides reduced from 1.12 in 1997 to 0.19 in 2008, whereas that of fluoroquinolones increased from 0.12 in 1997 to 0.35 in 2008. The primary resistance of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline remained as low as 2.2%, 7.9%, 23.7%, and 1.9% respectively. However, the primary levofloxacin resistance rose from 4.9% in 2000-2007 to 8.3% in 2008-2010 and 13.4% in 2011-2012 (p=0.001). The primary resistance of metronidazole was higher in females than males (33.1% vs. 18.8%, p<0.001), which was probably attributed to the higher consumption of nitroimidazole. Neither CagA nor VacA was associated with antibiotic resistance.
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One-hundred-and-eighty-three patients were recruited from GI outpatient clinics. Patients with PUD and G/D had similar severity of symptoms before eradication therapy. One year after H. pylori eradication, 99% of the PUD patients and 75% of the G/D patients felt better regarding their main upper GI complaint. Abdominal pain score decreased by 48% as measured by GSRS and by 78% as measured by UESS in the PUD group and by 25% and 47%, respectively, in the G/D group. Reflux symptoms decreased by 41% and 63% in PUD patients and by 28% and 45% in G/D patients; indigestion by 30% and 47% in PUD and by 20% and 34% in G/D; eating discomfort by 60% in PUD and by 35% in G/D. Sleep quality score improved by 68% in PUD and by 41% in NU patients. Constipation decreased by 22% in the PUD group. All these differences in symptoms were highly significant compared to baseline. Diarrhoea was unchanged.
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Within 1 year after the onset of treatment, all resorptive lesions had repaired by ingrowth of a radio-opaque mineralized tissue. The crestal areas showed radiological evidence of bone repair. 3 years after the onset of therapy, one premolar was extracted and examined histologically. It appeared that irregularly-shaped masses of woven bone-like tissue had invaded into the domain of the resorbed coronal dentin and were bordered by thin layers of acellular cementum.
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The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of the association between Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and delineate the role of C. difficile coinfection as a predictor of VRE infection versus colonization and adverse outcome.
Toxigenic stool culture was used in this study. Diarrhoeal stool specimens were cultured for C. difficile, followed by direct immunoassay on colonies of positive cultures with significant growth to detect toxins A or B.
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Significant improvements in the use of Amsel's criteria occurred between the second and third audit periods (51 to 65%, P = 0.04) but not between the first and second audits (51% for both, P = 1.0). The improvement was seen in high-recruiting clinicians (P = 0.02) but not low-recruiting clinicians (P = 0.75). Although treatment with 7 days of metronidazole or vaginal clindamycin increased for all clinicians between the first and second audit periods (8 to 18%, P = 0.04), it was greater between the second and third audit periods (18 to 72%, P < 0.01). No difference was observed between high- and low-recruiting clinicians.
Comparable H. pylori eradication rate was observed in both the sequential therapy and concomitant therapy groups by either intention-to-treat analysis [sequential 80.0% (68/85) vs concomitant 88.1% (74/84); P = 0.27] or per protocol analysis [sequential, 85.3% (64/75) vs concomitant, 94.6% (70/74); P = 0.60]. Adverse effects were reported and good compliance was observed in both groups (P = 0.72). Although dual antibiotics resistance affected the therapeutic efficacy of sequential therapy (P = 0.03), not concomitant therapy (P = 0.74), it was not an independent factor for predicting the treatment outcome.
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Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis.
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The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amoebic dysentery and liver abscess. It is therefore responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in a number of countries. Infections with E. histolytica are treated with nitroimidazoles, primarily with metronidazole. At this time, there is a lack of useful alternative classes of substances for the treatment of invasive amoebiasis. Alkylphosphocholines (alkyl-PCs) such as hexadecyl-PC (miltefosine) were originally developed as antitumor agents, but recently they have been successfully used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in humans. We examined hexadecyl-PC and several other alkyl-PCs with longer alkyl chains, with and without double bond(s), for their activity against two strains of E. histolytica. The compounds with the highest activity were oleyl-PC, octadecyl-PC, and nonadecenyl-PC, with 50% effective concentrations for 48 h of treatment between 15 and 21 microM for strain SFL-3 and between 73 and 98 microM for strain HM-1:IMSS. We also tested liposomal formulations of these alkyl-PCs and miltefosine. The alkyl-PC liposomes showed slightly lower activity, but are expected to be well tolerated. Liposomal formulations of oleyl-PC or closely related alkyl-PCs could be promising candidates for testing as broad-spectrum antiprotozoal and antitumor agents in humans.