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Although there are no pathognomonic clinical features of MDRTF at the onset of the illness, high fever ( > 104°F), toxaemia, abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly are often reported. The gold standard for the diagnosis of MDRTF is bacterial isolation of the organism in blood cultures. Ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone are the drugs most commonly used for treatment of MDRTF and produce good clinical results.
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Treatment with antimicrobial combinations is generally used to provide broad-spectrum coverage and/or to enhance antimicrobial activity (synergism). Extensive in vitro documentation of synergism exists for many such combinations, but an obvious benefit has been difficult to demonstrate clinically. Several types of therapeutically useful combinations often result in synergism; these combinations include a cell wall-active agent with an aminoglycosidic aminocyclitol, a beta-lactamase inhibitor with a beta-lactam antibiotic, and agents that inhibit sequential steps in a metabolic pathway. Combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics may be synergistic by means of several mechanisms, but such combinations have significant potential for antagonism when used against gram-negative bacilli and, thus, must be evaluated closely before clinical use.
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We present here the results of a survey conducted in Côte d'Ivoire, Africa, among healthcare providers, on the knowledge of prophylactic use of cotrimoxazole to prevent opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons. The survey was conducted in 15 health centres, involved or not in the 'initiative of access to treatment for HIV infected people'. Between December 1999 and March 2000, 145 physicians and 297 other health care providers were interviewed. In the analysis, the health centres were divided into three groups: health centres implicated in the initiative of access to treatment for HIV-infected people with a great deal of caring for HIV-infected people, health centres implicated in this initiative but caring for few HIV-infected people, and health centres not specifically involved in the care of HIV-infected people. Six per cent of physicians and 50% of other health care providers had never heard of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The level of information about this prophylaxis is related to the level of HIV-related activities in the health centre. Among health care providers informed, knowledge on the exact terms of prescription of the cotrimoxazole is poor. In conclusion, it appears that the recommendations for primary cotrimoxazole prophylaxis of HIV-infected people did not reach the whole health care provider population. Most physicians are informed but not other health workers, even if the latter are often the only contact of the patient with the healthcentre. The only medical staff correctly informed are the physicians already strongly engaged in the care of HIV-infected people.
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Antimicrobial-associated RTA is a relatively uncommon adverse effect, with most reports involving amphotericin B, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and outdated tetracycline. These agents may induce RTA either through direct tubular toxicity or as a function of their pharmacologic action. The time course for the development of RTA varies depending on the antimicrobial utilized. In most instances, RTA is reversible; however, some patients may experience prolonged recovery after the offending agent is removed.
An agar dilution method against trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was used to test clinical isolates of Mycobacterium intracellulare (MI) and M. avium (MA) from both HIV-infected and non-infected patients. MI and MA isolates demonstrated similar susceptibility data and were inhibited by concentrations of sulfamethoxazole achievable in serum.
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All (108) isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from usually sterile body sites between June 1, 1992, and May 31, 1993, were screened for susceptibility to penicillin by the E-test method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin and other antibiotics were also determined by an agar dilution method for 10 PRP and 22 penicillin-susceptible strains.
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A MEDLINE search was used to identify pertinent literature, including reviews.
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A randomized, clinical trial performed in 3 private practices.
Infections caused by Nocardia species are uncommon and have a wide variety of clinical manifestations in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can easily be missed because there are no characteristic symptoms. We present one case of a Nocardia infection in detail and give a brief description of eight other cases, including a relatively unique type of Nocardia veterana, diagnosed in our hospital during a five-year period. The diversity of clinical manifestations, microbiological identification and general principles of treatment of nocardiosis are reviewed.