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A systematic review of neonatal follow-up after obstetric studies will be performed. All reviews of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth group will be assessed for reviews on interventions that aimed to improve neonatal outcome. Reviews on interventions primary looking at other aspects than neonatal outcome such as labour progress will also be included when these interventions can change the outcome of the neonate on the short or long-term. Our review will be limited to RCTs with more than 350 women. Information that will be extracted from these RCTs will address whether, how and for how long follow-up has been performed. However, in many cases long-term follow-up of the infants will not be feasible. An alternative solution to limited follow-up could be to develop prediction models to estimate long-term health outcomes of the newborn based on specific perinatal outcomes and other covariates. For the development of multivariable prediction models for several health outcomes, we will use data available from a Dutch cohort study of preterm (< 32 weeks) and/or small for gestational age infants (< 1500 g). These infants were born in The Netherlands in 1983 and followed until they reached the age of 19.
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The effect of various environmental factors on the stability of aqueous solutions of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination in a veterinary water-soluble powder product was investigated. In the swine industry, the combination is administered via the drinking water, where both substances are quickly decomposed depending on several environmental factors. The degradation rate of the substances was determined in solutions of different water hardness levels (German hardness of 2, 6 and 10) and pH values (3.0, 7.0 and 10.0), and in troughs made of different materials (metal or plastic). Increasing the water hardness decreased the stability of both substances, amoxicillin being more stable at each hardness value than clavulanate. Amoxicillin trihydrate proved to be most stable at an acidic pH, while increasing the pH decreased its stability (P < 0.05). Maximum stability of potassium clavulanate was experienced at neutral pH, while its decomposition rate was significantly higher at acidic and alkaline pH values (P < 0.01). The stability of the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination depends mainly on the less stable clavulanate, although the effect of metallic ions significantly increased the decomposition rate of amoxicillin, rendering it less stable in metal troughs than clavulanate (P < 0.05). Therefore, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination should be administered to the animals in soft water, at neutral pH and in plastic troughs.
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In this preliminary study of patients with COPD presenting a bronchial superinfection, there was a significant improvement in lung auscultation and in the composite clinical score in patients given fenspiride. Fenspiride was thus found to provide an early clinical benefit.
A total of 744 samples were included. Greater than 10% resistance was observed for amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance of E. coli isolates to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was greater than 60% in all settings. HIV status did not significantly impact the microbiology of UTIs, but did impact antimicrobial resistance to co-trimoxazole.
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Analysis shows a different safety profile for the two selected drugs. The combination of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has been increasingly used in Italy and now represents the most frequently antibiotic prescribed by Italian general practitioners. Given the documented level of inappropriate use of beta-lactams in Italy, these results should be taken into account by physicians before prescribing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to patients.
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To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance.
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The study enrolled 142 pediatric patients: 70 in the cefditoren group (42 males, 28 females; median age, 7.15 years) and 72 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (37 males, 35 females; median age, 6.60 years). Four patients in the cefditoren group were excluded from the study analyses (2 who were noncompliant [used <80% of the assigned medication] and 2 who developed infection at other sites). There were no significant differences in baseline medical history or signs and symptoms between the 2 groups. Rates of improvement at day 14 in the cefditoren and amoxicillin/clavulanate groups were 78.8% (52/66) and 84.7% (61/72), respectively (P = NS). There was no significant difference in the change in S5 scores between groups at day 14. The median time to improvement was 3.0 days in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in rates of relapse (9.1% and 11.1%) or recurrence (3.0% and 5.6%) of sinus symptoms. The most common adverse event in both groups was diarrhea, occurring in 4.5% of the cefditoren group and 18.1 % of the amoxicillin/clavulanate group (P = 0.02).
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The choice of antibiotics to be prescribed in otitis media may be guided by microbiological culture of the middle ear exudate obtained by tympanocentesis, or by direct examination and culture of purulent material obtained by myringotomy after rupture of the tympanic membrane. Otherwise, routine antibiotic prescription is based on the epidemiological frequencies of bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hoemophilus influenza or Strepcococcus A. In children who have infrequently received beta-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin 50-75 mg/kg/day for 10 days may be the first choice. Children who suffer from recurrent episodes of acute otitis media may benefit from one of the three following prescriptions: amoxicillin + clavulanate (Augmentin), or an oral cephalosporin, or the erythromycin + sulfisoxazole combination (Pediazole). If recurrences are frequent and at short intervals, antibiotic prophylaxis may be effective, using penicillin V (Oracillin) 250,000 IU daily throughout the entire cold period.
Actinomycosis is a rare chronic granulomatous disease that involves the upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Approximately 40-55% of actinomycosis comprises the cervicofacial form. It presents a challenging clinical diagnostic dilemma because of variable presentations in the head and neck. Herein, we report a rare case of actinomycosis presenting as a vocal cord nodule in a healthy 21-year-old man who was not immunocompromised and had no other known medical disease.