There was a baseline Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole resistance rate of 54% which increased to 77.9% in first 3 months, rising to 96.1% by 6 months and all isolates were resistant by the 9th month. There was also evidence of cross-resistance to other antibiotics with significance in association with TMP-SMX resistance (p<0.0001). The Escherichia coli isolates showed a progressive increase in resistance to the tested antibiotics over the 12-month period. The resistance was in the following order: Ampicillin (74% to 82.6% in the first 3 months; 98.3% by the 6th month and 99.4% by the 9th month; all isolates were resistant by the 12th month), Augmentin (32.5% to 47.7% in first 3 months; 76.1% by the 6th month; 86.3% by the 9th month; all isolates were resistant by 12 months), Ceftriaxone (2.0% to 10.8% in first 3 months; 20.6% by the 6th month; 24.2% by the 9th month; 54.3% by the 12 months).
panklav 2x 1000 mg
The pharmacokinetics of intravenous Augmentin have been investigated and the data found to fit a two compartment model. In the first study, to a crossover design, a bolus injection of 1.2 g Augmentin was given to 8 healthy volunteers with and without probenecid. It was found that the serum concentrations of amoxycillin were increased in the presence of probenecid, but those of clavulanic acid were unaffected. In a second study a further 8 volunteers received an infusion over 30 min of 2.2 g Augmentin. At the end of the infusion, peak concentrations in excess of 100 micrograms/ml were recorded for amoxycillin and 14 micrograms/ml for clavulanic acid. In both studies the serum and urinary concentrations of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid obtained were well above those considered necessary to achieve a therapeutic effect.
panklav 625 mg
Odontogenic infections may spread to the orbit by one or more of several paths. Such extension is potentially dangerous and may lead to loss of vision. A case of infection from a primary tooth, which extended to the retrobulbar area is presented in this report. Treatment included surgical drainage of the resulting subperiosteal orbital abscess through a Caldwell-Luc approach as well as aggressive antibiotic therapy. The importance of early suspicion of this entity and its potential sequelae are discussed.
panklav 875 mg
We present a rare case of pulmonary actinomycosis complicated with massive hemoptysis. The patient was a 41-year-old male farmer, who had experienced prolonged fever and off-and-on blood streaked sputum for 2 years. He was admitted to our hospital because of 3 days of massive hemoptysis. He had no underlying medical illnesses, but was a heavy smoker and an alcoholic. The chest radiograph revealed patchy alveolar infiltration of the right upper lobe, mimicing tuberculosis. Massive hemoptysis was not controlled using conservative treatment and anti-tuberculous drugs. Emergency right upper lobe lobectomy was needed to stop the bleeding. Histopathologic examination demonstrated aggregates of filamentous gram-positive organisms in characteristic "sulfur granules", indicating actinomycosis. The fever subsided after intravenous augmentin was given, followed by 6 months of oral amoxicillin. The patient is doing well and has had no recurrent hemoptysis.
panklav 625 mg cena
Bacterial counts of Strains 1 and 2 were >or= 6 log(10) reduced with all antibiotics tested at 12 and 24 h. Against Strains 3 and 4, log(10) reductions at 12 and 24 h were significantly higher for cefditoren versus cefuroxime (P < 0.01) (although both exhibited bactericidal activity, i.e. >or= 3 log(10) reduction) and versus the two co-amoxiclav regimens (P < 0.001) (that exhibited negligible initial inocula reductions).
panklav and alcohol
The aim of this study targeted the evaluation of the in vivo effect of moxifloxacin in the treatment of patients with severe odontogenic abscesses. This was a prospective, two-armed, randomised, unblinded, monocentric pilot study, which enrolled 21 hospitalized patients with severe odontogenic abscesses. After extraoral incision, patients were either treated with moxifloxacin 400 mg i.v. once daily or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 2.2 g i.v. three times daily. Primary clinical endpoint was the time until clinical remission, represented by simultaneous assertion of the following criteria: body temperature <38.5 degrees C, no pain at palpation, and mouth opening similar or better than preoperatively. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, pain, health related quality of life (HR-QoL) and length of hospital stay were recorded as secondary outcome criteria. The mean duration until reaching the primary end point was 6.6 (range, 4.3-8.8) days in the moxifloxacin group and 6.0 (range, 3.8-8.2) days in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group. Median days of in-house treatment ranged between five and six days for both groups. HR-QoL was highly impaired in both groups preoperatively and reached near normal on days three and four in both samples. In this pilot investigation, moxifloxacin showed promising results as compared to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Therefore, a larger prospective clinical trial using moxifloxacin in severe odontogenic abscesses appears encouraging. We suggest a combination of body temperature, palpatory pain, and subjective pain as a parameter for successful intervention; however, both findings need prospective validation by means of a phase III evaluation.