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Cefuroxime has been recommended as a component of treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in guidelines produced by several groups, including the US and British Thoracic Societies. It is effective in vitro against the major bacterial pathogens in CAP but it needs to be given with an agent that is active against Mycoplasma, Chlamydia or Legionella spp. if the presence of any of these organisms is suspected. Cefuroxime penetrates respiratory tissue effectively after either parenteral or oral administration, and it has a pharmacodynamic profile which suggests that adequate cover can be achieved with oral therapy for respiratory pathogens susceptible to cefuroxime concentrations of 4 mg/L or less. This break-point is applicable to oral monotherapy and to sequential therapy regimens for the treatment of pneumonia. Cefuroxime can be used either orally or parenterally and it is approved in many countries for the treatment of adult pneumonia by either route. The oral form, cefuroxime axetil, has been used extensively in the treatment of children aged over 3 months but its use in paediatric pneumonia has not been reviewed. The present review summarises clinical experience in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia, of varying severity, in children. The data show that children with severe pneumonia, including those with pleural effusion or complications, can be treated with a full course of intravenous cefuroxime therapy, whereas hospitalised children whose pneumonia stabilises rapidly after initial intravenous therapy can change to oral cefuroxime axetil after 24 to 72 hours and may be able to return home. Oral cefuroxime axetil was appropriate for patients with milder pneumonia managed either in hospital or at home.
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In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities on the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of the amorphous cefuroxime axetil (CFA) ultrafine particles prepared by HGAP method were investigated in this paper. The conventional sprayed CFA particles were studied as the control group. XRD, SEM, BET tests were performed to investigate the morphology changes of the samples before and after sterile. The in vitro dissolution test, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the in vivo experiment on mice were explored. The results demonstrated that: (i) The structure, morphology and amorphous form of the particles could be affected during steam sterile process; (ii) CFA particles with different morphologies showed varied antibacterial activities; and (iii) the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of the ultrafine particles prepared by HGAP is markedly stronger than that of the conventional sprayed amorphous particles.
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Cefuroxime is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic with a broad spectrum activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the pharmaceutical quality standards of four different brands of cefuroxime axetil 125 mg tablets with different price ranges purchased from retail pharmacies of Pakistan. The brands were tested for physicochemical evaluation and in vitro dissolution studies in different medium like 0.07N HCl, distilled water, 0.1N HCl of pH 1.2 and phosphate buffers of pH 4.5 and pH 6.8. Statistical analysis, model dependent (zero order, first order, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Hixson-Crowell, Weibull) and model independent (Difference f1, similarity f2) approaches were applied to multiple dissolution profile of all brands. All brands were found to be similar with reference and meeting the compendial quality standard. Inter brand variation was observed in disintegration time and assay which was resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in drug release data and Weibull was observed as best fill model.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter trial of 95 patients (median age, 39 years) with a history of recurrent sinusitis or chronic rhinitis and evidence of acute infection by sinus radiograph or nasal endoscopy, which was conducted from October 1998 through April 2000 at 22 sites (12 primary care and 10 otolaryngology).
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In this prospective, multicentre, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 501 adult outpatients seen in 17 otolaryngology offices with both symptoms and radiographic evidence of acute maxillary sinusitis randomly received oral ciprofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d.) or cefuroxime axetil (250 mg b.i.d.), each for 10 days. Patients were further subclassified as having either acute sinusitis or an acute exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. All patients underwent maxillary sinus aspiration at study entry to establish a microbiologic etiology. The primary measure of efficacy was the rate of clinical success in the efficacy-valid population at the end of therapy. Secondary measures included bacteriologic response at the end of therapy, and 2- to 4-week clinical and bacteriologic follow-up response rates in both efficacy-valid and intent-to-treat groups.
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Restrospective analysis, modeled through a decision tree. The effectiveness of the treatments was estimated through a randomized and double-blind clinical trial in which 800 mg/day (5 days) of telithromycin were compared with 1,000 mg/day (10 days) of cefuroxime-axetil in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (140 and 142 patients, respectively). Resources use was estimated from clinical trial and from Spanish data, and the unit costs through a health costs dabatase. The model was validated by a panel of Spanish clinical experts.