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The in vitro antibacterial activities of oral cephem antibiotics and ketolide telithromycin against major respiratory pathogens possessing beta-lactam-resistant mutations (within the pbp gene) and/or macrolide-resistant genes (erm and mef) were examined in clinical isolates collected at 66 institutes in all over the Japan between 2002 and 2003. Telithromycin showed the strongest antibacterial activity against methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without macrolide-resistant genes, such as ermA or ermC gene. All the cephem antibiotics showed potent antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.015 mg/L or lower. Cefdinir had a much higher MIC90 against genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) than cefditoren and cefcapene (8 mg/L cefdinir vs. 1 mg/L cefditoren and cefcapene). The majority of gPRSP harbored either ermB or mefA, and the antibacterial activity of telithromycin against these strains was decreased however some susceptibility was still sustained. Cefditoren exerted the strongest antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 0.5 mg/L. These results underline the importance of checking the susceptibility and selecting an appropriate antibiotic against target pathogens.
The in vitro activity of FK041, a new orally active cephem antibiotic, against a wide variety of clinical isolates of bacteria was investigated and compared with those of cefdinir (CFDN) and cefditoren (CDTR). FK041 exhibited broad spectrum activity against reference strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. FK041 was active against clinical isolates of Gram-positive organisms except Enterococcus faecalis with MIC90s less than 1.56 microg/ml. FK041 was more active than CFDN and CDTR against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus agalactiae and was comparable to CFDN and CDTR against Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. FK041 had no activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, like CFDN and CDTR. FK041 showed moderate activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae with an MIC range of 0.05 approximately 3.13 microg/ml, and was superior to CFDN but inferior to CDTR. Against clinical isolates of many Gram-negative organisms such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis, FK041 had good activity comparable or superior to those of CFDN and CDTR. However, it was inferior to CDTR in activity against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Morganella morganii, and Serratia marcescens, and was inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. With FK041 a small difference between MIC and MBC against S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae was found, indicating that its action is bactericidal against these species. FK041 was stable to group 2beta-lactamase hydrolysis but was unstable to group 1beta-lactamase hydrolysis. The stability of FK041 to these enzymes was similar to those of CFDN and CDTR. FK041 showed high affinity for the main penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of S. aureus (PBP 3, 2, and 1) and E. coli (PBP 3, 4, lbs, 2, and 1a).
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Children aged 1 to 12 years with signs and symptoms of pharyngitis and a positive result on a rapid screening test for Streptococcus pyogenes (ie, a convenience sample). Four hundred eighty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 440 were clinically and microbiologically evaluable. The most common reasons patients were nonevaluable were failure to return for specified visits and noncompliance with the administration of the medication; 2 patients receiving penicillin V discontinued use of the drug because of adverse events.
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The objective of this study was to determine if physicians would alter their prescribing preferences after sampling liquid formulations of medications for common pediatric diagnoses.
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The objective of present investigation was to study the effect of gut microbiota alteration by oral administration of targeted delivery of pH sensitive cefdinir microspheres to high-fructose-fed (HFD) rats. Rats were fed with a high-fructose diet with or without cefdinir microsphere administration for 30 days. The fecal microbiota community, oral glucose tolerance, the markers of liver injury, plasma and hepatic lipids profile, and histological evaluation were investigated. The levels of blood glucose, liver injury markers, lipid profile in plasma and liver, and fat tissue were significantly increased in high-fructose-fed rats. However, after pH-sensitive cefdinir microsphere administration, the elevation of these parameters was significantly suppressed. Cef EL significantly lowered the increased AST (p < 0.05) and ALT (p < 0.001) levels in HFD group. There is a significant lower (p < 0.01) AUCglucose level in Cef EL group than HFD group The histological changes in the liver and the small and large intestines were more profound in HFD group as compared to cefdinir-treated HFD and control groups. Feeding of cefdinir microsphere sustained lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the number of Enterobacteriaceae induced by HFD. Experimental evidences demonstrated that the effectiveness of pH-specific cefdinir microsphere on reducing insulin resistance and development of metabolic changes in high-fructose-fed rats and suggested that it may be a promising therapeutic agent in treating type 2 diabetes. Intestinal-targeted antibiotic delivery needs to be further explored for its therapeutic applications.
Three hundred and ninety-one patients were treated. The treatment groups were well matched with regard to demographic characteristics and types of infection. Abscess(es) (26%), wound infection (24%), and cellulitis (21%) were the most common infections. At the TOC visit, the clinical cure rate for both treatment groups was 89% (151/170 for cefdinir and 154/174 for cephalexin) in clinically evaluable patients (95% CI for difference in cure rates [-6.7 to 7.3]). In the intent-to-treat analysis, cure rates were 83% for cefdinir vs. 82% for cephalexin. Clinical cure rates for infections caused by methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus were 93% (37/40) and 92% (35/38) for cefdinir vs. 91% (29/32) and 90% (37/41) for cephalexin (p > 0.999 comparing treatment groups for MSSA; p > 0.999 for MRSA). The usefulness questionnaire demonstrated that cefdinir was more highly rated in the mean composite score (87.4 vs. 83.6, p = 0.04), with the difference primarily due to the respondents' preference for the convenience of taking the study medication (mean score 93.5 vs. 74.1 for cephalexin, p < 0.001). The study had the following limitations: the requirement for culture at baseline likely skewed the enrollment of patients towards those with abscesses; the results of culture in patients with USSSIs are often nonspecific; in some patients entering the study with a diagnosis of cellulitis, the cellulitis was associated with an abscess; and, incision and drainage (I&D), spontaneous drainage, and needle aspiration are likely to have contributed to clinical response for purulent infections, and in particular MRSA-associated infections. Both study drugs were well tolerated. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (10% cefdinir, 4% cephalexin, p = 0.017), nausea (3% and 6%, respectively, p = 0.203), and vaginal mycosis (3% and 6% of females, respectively, p = 0.500).
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A total of 1011 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment-order groups; 965 were evaluable for the taste and smell analyses. Baseline demographics of evaluable subjects were similar among test groups. Approximately even proportions of participants were female or male (50.1 % vs 49.9%), most (84.1%) were white, and slightly more participants were aged 7 or 8 years rather than younger (age 4 years, 16.0%; age 5 years, 17.4%; age 6 years, 18.7%; age 7 years, 23.2%; age 8 years, 24.8%). Of the 965 children who tasted both antibiotic suspensions and determined their preference, 798 (82.7%) rated the taste of cefdinir as really good or good (the highest possible ratings); 712 (73.8%) assigned the same ratings to amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, cefprozil, azithromycin, or generic amoxicillin (P < or = 0.001). With regard to smell, 671 (69.5%) rated the smell of cefdinir as really good or good; 636 (65.9%) assigned these same ratings to the comparator agents (P = NS).
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Two dosage regimens of cefdinir were compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for the treatment of suppurative acute otitis media (AOM) in children.
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The in vivo antibacterial activities of a new oral trinem, sanfetrinem cilexetil (a prodrug of sanfetrinem), were evaluated in comparison with those of cefdinir and amoxicillin. Sanfetrinem cilexetil showed potent efficacy against experimental murine septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli and against murine respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Likewise, in murine models of respiratory infection by penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, sanfetrinem cilexetil was more effective than amoxicillin in reducing the number of bacteria in infected lungs. These results were reflected in its potent in vitro activity and high levels in plasma.