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Brucellosis is a systemic infectious disease caused by Brucella bacteria. A successful treatment requires antibiotics that can penetrate into the cell at high concentrations. The aim of this study was to assess the biotype and in vitro activity of 80 Brucella isolates obtained from blood against various antimicrobials for human brucellosis in Turkey.
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Using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles, pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg twice daily was designed to provide adequate levels of amoxicillin over the 12-h dosing interval to eradicate penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP, penicillin MICs > or = 2 mg/L) with amoxicillin MICs of at least 4 mg/L. The clinical efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg was evaluated in patients with respiratory tract infections caused by S. pneumoniae, including isolates with elevated penicillin (2-8 mg/L) MICs. Data from 10 clinical studies were combined: seven randomised (1:1), double-blind, controlled trials (efficacy intent-to-treat [ITT]N = 3376): amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg twice daily vs. levofloxacin 500 mg once daily in acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS); levofloxacin 500 mg once daily in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB); clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily in AECB; amoxicillin/clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily/three times daily and 1000/125 mg three times daily in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and three noncomparative studies (efficacy ITT N = 3024): two in ABS, one in CAP. The bacteriological per-protocol (PP) population at follow up (days 14-39) comprised 1295 patients for amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg and 241 for comparators. With amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg at follow-up, outcome was successful (clinical success and eradication/presumed eradication) in 85/90 (94.4%) patients with S. pneumoniae in comparative studies and 421/445 (94.6%) in noncomparative studies, and with comparators 58/70 (82.9%) were successes. In the amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg group at follow up, 52/552 S. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to penicillin. At follow up, 50/52 (96.2%) patients with PRSP were successes, including 6/7 with amoxicillin MICs of 4 mg/L and 7/8 with amoxicillin MICs of 8 mg/L. Success rates for amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg against PRSP were similar for CAP (96.0%[24/25]), AECB (100%[3/3]) and ABS (95.8%[23/24]). There were six PRSP isolates in the comparator group (two isolates were from one patient), and three of five patients in this group were successes. In conclusion, amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg demonstrated combined clinical/bacteriological success against 50/52 patients with PRSP, including 13/15 strains with amoxicillin MICs of 4-8 mg/L. These results for the pharmacokinetic-enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg are in line with the high efficacy against PRSP predicted using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters.
The aim of the study was to study the ecological effects of levofloxacin, compared to that of ofloxacin, on the oral and intestinal human microflora. 10 healthy volunteers received levofloxacin (500 mg) and 10 subjects were given ofloxacin (400 mg) perorally, once daily for 7 days. Saliva and stool samples were obtained prior to drug administration, during administration (days 2, 4 and 7), and after withdrawal of the agents (days 9, 11, 14 and 21). The concentrations of levofloxacin and ofloxacin in the saliva and faecal samples, respectively, were assayed, and quantitative and qualitative microbiological analyses were performed. Oral administration of levofloxacin and ofloxacin led to low drug concentrations in the saliva, which corresponded with mild disturbances in the oral microflora. High drug levels were obtained in the intestinal tract, and both agents caused a selective reduction in the normal microflora, mainly directed towards aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. There was no significant difference between levofloxacin and ofloxacin, regarding ecological effects on the normal oral and intestinal microflora. From an ecological point of view, these agents acted favourably, since no major selection of resistant strains occurred in the normal microflora during administration.
Gram-positive cocci and Propionibacterium acnes are widely reported agents of infectious postoperative endophthalmitis. This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the eradication effectiveness and safety profile of levofloxacin 1.5% ophthalmic solution (LVFX 1.5%) for use in perioperative disinfection.
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Central nervous system reactions to new quinolones, such as convulsions due to interaction with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), have attracted increased attention in Japan.
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Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and susceptibility were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints applied against tigecycline).
The profile of ADRs could differ for some drugs marketed as racemic and enantiomeric forms. Further studies would be necessary to confirm these data.
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Multivariate-adjusted rates of treatment failure in outpatients with CAP were significantly lower in those treated with levofloxacin relative to those treated with a macrolide. The lower rates of treatment failure with levofloxacin were consistently observed across all patients and in the subgroups aged > or =50 and > or =65 years. Rates of emergency department visits were also significantly lower among levofloxacin-treated patients, whereas overall CAP-related hospitali-zations and costs did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups.