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Cat-scratch disease is a subacute, regional lymphadenitis syndrome that occurs mainly in children. The causative agent is Bartonella henselae. After an incubation period ranging usually between 1 and 2 weeks, red papules develop at the site of cutaneous inoculation and persist until the development of lymphadenopathy with some malaise. Cases with complications have been observed including Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, encephalopathy, a variety of exanthems and granumatous hepatitis. Diagnosis is based on serologic tests and, when necessary, antimicrobial treatment can be considered. Incision and drainage should not be done.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are limited. This tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study assessed bacterial etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM in Thailand.
The incidence of antimicrobial resistance and expressed and unexpressed resistance genes among commensal Escherichia coli isolated from healthy farm animals at slaughter in Great Britain was investigated. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the isolates varied according to the animal species; of 836 isolates from cattle tested only 5.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, while only 3.0% of 836 isolates from sheep were resistant to one or more agents. However, 92.1% of 2480 isolates from pigs were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Among isolates from pigs, resistance to some antimicrobials such as tetracycline (78.7%), sulphonamide (66.9%) and streptomycin (37.5%) was found to be common, but relatively rare to other agents such as amikacin (0.1%), ceftazidime (0.1%) and coamoxiclav (0.2%). The isolates had a diverse range of resistance gene profiles, with tet(B), sul2 and strAB identified most frequently. Seven out of 615 isolates investigated carried unexpressed resistance genes. One trimethoprim-susceptible isolate carried a complete dfrA17 gene but lacked a promoter for it. However, in the remaining six streptomycin-susceptible isolates, one of which carried strAB while the others carried aadA, no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility. The data indicate that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli of animal origin is due to a broad range of acquired genes.
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Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07852892.
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The study subjects consisted of 54 patients infected with H. pylori, in whom initial triple therapy had failed. Subjects were randomized to receive the following 7-day therapies: (i) pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg q.i.d., amoxicillin-clavulanate 1000 mg b.i.d., and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d. (PBAT); or (ii) pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., tripotassium dicitrate bismuthate 300 mg q.i.d., metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., and tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d. (PBMT). Eradication rates based on antibiotic susceptibility, drug compliance and side-effect rates were evaluated and compared.
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35 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis were randomized to have conventional open or laparoscopic surgical procedures. Before randomization, patients signed a consent form to participate in the study. Patients who were converted from laparoscopic to open appendectomy (3 cases), HIV+, allergic to Augmentin or who had contraindications to laparoscopic surgery were excluded from the study. A total of 32 patients were randomized: 17 to open (group I) and 15 to laparoscopic surgery (group II). There were no significant differences with regard to age, ASA score, symptoms or macroscopic aspect of the appendix. Two patients had a normal appendix, 12 had acute appendicitis, 14 gangrenous appendicitis and 4 ruptured or abscessed appendicitis. All patients received preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (Augmentin) after blood cultures (H1) were drawn. Five other blood cultures were performed in standard medium and medium neutralizing Augmentin: at the time of opening the peritoneum (H2), after appendectomy (H3), after closure of the abdomen (H4), and at 6 (H5) and 12 hours (H6) after the operation. Bacterial cultures from the appendix site were performed before (P1) and after (P2) appendectomy.
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Escherichia coli was identified in 56/69 (81 %) peritoneal specimens; four isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, and one other isolate was resistant to gentamicin. Anaerobes were identified in 37/69 (54 %) peritoneal specimens; two anaerobic isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and one isolate was resistant to metronidazole. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified in 4/69 (6 %) peritoneal specimens, and all were susceptible to gentamicin. Streptococcal species (two Group F streptococci and three β-haemolytic streptococci) were identified in 5/69 (7 %) specimens, and all were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate. Combination therapy involving amoxicillin-clavulanate and aminoglycoside is appropriate empirical treatment in 68/69 (99 %) patients. Addition of metronidazole to this regime would provide 100 % initial empirical coverage. Inadequate initial empiric antibiotic treatment and the presence of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant E. coli were independent predictors of the post-operative infectious complications observed in 14/69 (20 %) patients.