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In a nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility survey of 494 Nesseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected from February 2008 to December 2009 in 3 regions of Japan, 112 (22.7%) were collected from western Japan (Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku, and Kyushu), 277 (56.1%) from mid-eastern Japan (Kanto), and 105 (21.1%) from eastern Japan (Tokai, Hokuriku, Koushinetsu, Tohoku, and Hokkaido). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (CPFX) was 72.8%, to penicillin G (PCG) 19.8%, and to tetracycline (TC) 18.2%. Intermediate resistance to CPFX was 1.8%, to PCG 73.7%, and to TC 43.7%. These results indicate that both types of resistance to the 3 agents were very high. Intermediate resistance to cefixime (CFIX) was 38.1% and to cefozidim (CDZM) 13.4%. Resistance to CFIX was only 0.4% and to CDZM 0%. Susceptibility to azithromycin was 96.6%, to ceftriaxone 99.8%, and to spectinomycin 100%. No significant difference in resistance was seen to different antimicrobial agent classes tested in the 3 regions, although intermediate resistance to CFIX in western Japan was significantly higher than in mid-eastern Japan.
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Data are presented on the in vitro microbiologic activity of cefprozil against 10,152 bacterial isolates, including most of the clinically important streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae), beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Clostridium difficile, and numerous other gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. In clinical trials, cefprozil appears to be at least as effective as commonly used comparison agents such as cefaclor, cefixime, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Additionally, cefprozil is better tolerated than the latter two agents, especially with regard to gastrointestinal adverse effects.
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Costa de Ponent Health Region. Population in 1993-96 period was 1,158,098 inhabitants; in 2000-02 period, 1,188,007 inhabitants.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the Centers for Disease Control recommendations for the treatment of gonococcal infection in pregnancy.
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To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children to determine whether outcomes were comparable in children treated with antibiotics for less than 7 days or at least 7 days or more.
Out of 117 CSOM cases, 105 (86%) showed positive bacterial culture. The Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest aerobic isolate in CSOM. The sensitivity of Staphylococci spp. to commonly used antimicrobials varied from 27.2% for cefixime to 95.5% for gentamicin and coagulase positive. Pseudomonas isolates showed complete (100%) resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate (co-amoxiclave), cloxacillin and cefixime, and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (95%) and cephalexin (90%).
novacef 250 tablet
A 38-year-old woman, G1P0, 36+ weeks pregnancy came to hospital with decreased fetal movement. She had purulent vaginal discharge and history of self treatment 1 month earlier. She had a fever with arthritis for 3 days. Purulent joint fluid from arthrocentesis of her right wrist demonstrated intracellular Gram negative diplococcal bacteria. The diagnosis was disseminated gonococcal infection. She was successfully treated with parenteral ceftriaxone followed by oral cefixime. Cesarean section was performed due to preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were uneventful.
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The in-vitro activity of 24 beta-lactam antibiotics was compared using three groups of pneumococci and an agar dilution method comprising 100 penicillin-susceptible, 100 intermediately penicillin-resistant, and 100 highly penicillin-resistant pneumococcal strains. Our results show that intermediately penicillin-resistant and highly penicillin-resistant pneumococci had decreased sensitivity to other beta-lactam agents. According to their relative in-vitro activity, the antimicrobials were classified into three groups. The first group included drugs more active than penicillin (imipenem, meropenem, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and cefpirome), which could be useful for the treatment of infections due to penicillin-resistant strains. The second group showed slightly lesser activity than did penicillin, and included: ampicillin, cefdinir, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, azlocillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, and cefamandole. The remaining antibiotics (oxacillin, cefixime, ceftizoxime, cefetamet, cefaclor, ceftazidime, cefoxitin, cefonicid, and latamoxef) showed poor activity against penicillin-resistant strains, precluding their use for empirical treatment in areas with a high prevalence of penicillin-resistant strains.
A crossover study was undertaken in 8 healthy volunteers to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefixime administered orally alone or combined with an antacid. Each subject received successively: cefixime alone, Maalox followed 30 min later by cefixime, then Maalox followed 4 hours later by cefixime and finally Alka-Seltzer followed 30 min later by cefixime. Sixteen blood samples were drawn from 0 to 24 hours after oral administration, and plasma cefixime parameters were determined, using a HPLC assay. Four parameters were used to detect a possible interaction: Cmax, Tmax, AUCO-N and AUCO-alpha. No significant difference was observed between the four parameters. Thus, poor absorption of cefixime when combined with an antacid can be ruled out.