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Helicobacter pylori infection is mainly acquired in childhood, and studies on the epidemiology of this infection depend on the availability of a noninvasive diagnostic test for use in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether the carbon 13-labeled urea breath test (UBT) can be used in children by evaluating: (1) its sensitivity and specificity compared with either culture or both rapid urease test and histologic examination, (2) whether a test meal or a prolonged fast is required, (3) the usefulness after treatment for H. pylori. Eighty-eight children (mean age, 10.6 +/- 4.19 years) who were undergoing upper endoscopy were studied while fasting, not fasting, and after treatment. Children were given 50 mg of 13C-urea if they weighed less than 50 kg or 75 mg of 13C-urea if they weighed more than 50 kg with 50 mg of a glucose polymer solution in 7.5 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. In 63 fasting children the UBT was 100% sensitive and 97.6% specific at 30 minutes with a cutoff value of 3.5 delta 13CO2 per mil. Nonfasting tests in 23 children, performed between 1 and 2 hours after their usual meal, were 100% sensitive and 91.6% specific. In 13 children fed directly before the UBT, the sensitivity of the test was reduced to 50%. Thirty minutes was the optimal sampling time. There was a significant decrease in specificity when samples were obtained at 15 minutes, possibly caused by the interference of oral urease-producing organisms. The test was 100% sensitive and specific in 20 children after treatment for H. pylori infection. The UBT is a highly sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. Neither a prolonged fast nor a test meal is required.
We (i) determined the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and their antimicrobial resistance to six antimicrobial classes, in a variety of fresh vegetables sold in retail in Ohio, USA, and (ii) conducted cumulative meta-analysis of reported prevalence in vegetables since the 1990s. Six antimicrobial classes were tested for their relevance as risk factors for C. difficile infections (CDIs) (clindamycin, moxifloxacin) or their clinical priority as exhaustive therapeutic options (metronidazole, vancomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline). By using an enrichment protocol we isolated C. difficile from three of 125 vegetable products (2.4%). All isolates were toxigenic, and originated from 4.6% of 65 vegetables cultivated above the ground (n = 3; outer leaves of iceberg lettuce, green pepper, and eggplant). Root vegetables yielded no C. difficile. The C. difficile isolates belonged to two PCR ribotypes, one with an unusual antimicrobial resistance for moxifloxacin and clindamycin (lettuce and pepper; 027-like, A(+)B(+)CDT(+); tcdC 18 bp deletion); the other PCR ribotype (eggplant, A(+)B(+) CDT(-); classic tcdC) was susceptible to all antimicrobials. Results of the cumulative weighted meta-analysis (6 studies) indicate that the prevalence of C. difficile in vegetables is 2.1% and homogeneous (P < 0.001) since the first report in 1996 (2.4%). The present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from retail vegetables in the USA. Of public health relevance, antimicrobial resistance to moxifloxacin/clindamycin (a bacterial-associated risk factor for severe CDIs) was identified on the surface of vegetables that are consumed raw.
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CLR-based triple therapy is a more effective treatment approach over MNZ-based triple therapy for H. pylori infection in Bhutan.
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Antibiotics are prescribed in pregnancy but only few reports provide information about the actual practice of prophylactic antibiotics usage in various obstetrical conditions amongst obstetricians. The present study evaluates the practice of obstetricians of Delhi regarding prescription of antibiotics in vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections. The open-ended predesigned questionnaire study incorporated details of the obstetricians working in different hospitals of Delhi and their practice of prescribing antibiotics in vaginal deliveries, episiotomies and caesarean sections was filled by obstetricians. The data was analysed using Student's 't' test and Chi-square test. The mean age of obstetricians was 35.5 years; 90% were females and 48.9% were postgraduate students with 70% less than 5 years experience and 77.8% were working in a government hospital. In episiotomy, 18.9% obstetricians did not use antibiotics while 33.3%, 27.8% and 20% obstetricians used ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin orally for 5 days respectively. Injection cefazolin was used intravenously, 1 g 12 hourly for 3 days by 34.4% and 33.3% obstetricians in elective and emergency caesarean sections respectively, while it was used for 5 days by 35.5% and 41.1% obstetricians respectively. A combination of ampicillin, gentamicin and metronidazole for 5 days was used by 30% and 25.5% obstetricians for elective and emergency caesarean sections respectively. In spite of clear evidence from Cochrane Database of Clinical Reviews that use of penicillin or first generation cephalosporins in single dose therapy is effective; the actual practice is contrary with use of multiagent antibiotics for long periods, being very rampant in actual clinical practice.
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Treatment of manifestations: Critically ill individuals are stabilized by restoring volume status and acid-base balance; reducing or eliminating protein intake; providing increased calories via high glucose-containing fluids and insulin to arrest catabolism; and monitoring serum electrolytes and ammonia, venous or arterial blood gases, and urine output. Management includes a high-calorie diet low in propiogenic amino acid precursors; hydroxocobalamin intramuscular injections; carnitine supplementation; antibiotics such as neomycin or metronidazole to reduce propionate production from gut flora; gastrostomy tube placement as needed; and aggressive treatment of infections. Other therapies used in a limited number of patients include N-carbamylglutamate for the treatment of acute hyperammonemic episodes; liver, kidney, or combined liver and kidney transplantation; and antioxidants for the treatment of optic nerve atrophy. Prevention of primary manifestations: In some cases, newborn screening allows for presymptomatic detection of affected newborns and early treatment. Agents/circumstances to avoid: Fasting and increased dietary protein. Other: Medic Alert(®) bracelets and up-to-date, easily accessed, detailed emergency treatment protocols facilitate care.
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Dermatologists are reducing their use of systemic antibiotics for rosacea and turning to therapies, such as azelaic acid, that do not have potential to induce bacterial resistance.