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Bacterial infection was demonstrated in high percentage in patients with liver cirrhosis admitted to hospital. The administration of antibiotics is indicated in these patients. Intravenous application is probably of the same efficacy as per-oral one.
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Fifty six males with gonococcal urethritis were administered 600 mg of norfloxacin (NFLX) daily for 7 days, before the effects were examined. The pharmaceutical effects were studied on the third and the seventh day after administration. Pronounced effectiveness of 77.8%, effectiveness of 19.4% and ineffectiveness of 2.8% were found on the third day after administration, and pronounced effectiveness of 94.4%, effectiveness of 5.6% and ineffectiveness of 0% were found on the seventh day after administration. Effectiveness of 100% was obtained up to the seventh day. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NFLX and ampicillin (AMPC) were determined for 14 strains. The peak of MIC of NFLX was found at 0.05 micrograms/ml and all strains were 0.78 micrograms/ml or lower. The peak of MIC of AMPC was 0.1 microgram/ml. MICs of both drugs were 0.78 micrograms/ml or lower, and resistant bacteria were not found. In view of the analyses of age distribution of patients and source of infection, the peak was found in the twenties and the source of infection in 64.7% were, so-called, professional women.
Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial agents continues to spread and intensify. Choosing an antimicrobial regimen requires knowledge of the comparative efficacy of candidate regimens, as delineated in properly conducted clinical trials; their activity against N. gonorrhoeae in vitro; and their pharmacokinetics and toxicity. We tabulated the results of trials of single-dose antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated gonococcal infection published after 1980. Thirty regimens comprising 21 antimicrobial drugs have been shown to be highly effective for rectal and urogenital infections; the agents involved are cefixime, cefodizime, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, temafloxacin, azithromycin, aztreonam, netilmicin, rifampin plus erythromycin stearate, sisomicin, and spectinomycin. Few regimens have been shown to be highly effective against pharyngeal infections. Among those antimicrobial agents available for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections in the United States, ceftriaxone (125 mg), cefixime (400 mg), ciprofloxacin (500 mg), and ofloxacin (400 mg) appear to offer the best balance of proven efficacy and safety.
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Ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based HLLME) high-performance liquid chromatography was developed and applied to the extraction, separation and determination of some antibiotics in milk. The proteins and lipids were removed by adding salt and adjusting the pH value. The homogeneous extraction was applied to the improvement of recoveries for IL phase and analytes. The experimental parameters of the IL-based HLLME, including salt concentration in sample solution, pH value of sample solution, volume of [C(6)MIM][BF(4)], amount of ion-pairing agent (NH(4)PF(6)), and extraction time, were evaluated. The limits of detection for enoxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and sulfadimethoxine were 15.8, 7.07, 5.13, 4.00, 7.79 and 8.33 μg L(-1), respectively. When the proposed method was applied to the analysis of milk samples the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 92.5 to 118.6% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.00%.
Nanosecond and picosecond absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques were applied to the investigation of the reactivity from the lowest excited states of some 6-fluoro-7-piperazino-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids (FQs) in aqueous media at neutral pH, in the absence and presence of different sodium salts. Following the detection of various transients, we proposed a mechanism for the cleavage of the carbon-fluorine bond that proceeded through different reaction pathways, dependent on the molecular structure and the characteristics of the medium. The drug lomefloxacin (LOM), a 6,8-difluoroquinolone derivative, underwent heterolytic cleavage of the C8-F bond from the excited singlet state. With the 6-monofluoroquinolone norfloxacin (NOR) and the corresponding 1,8-naphthyridinone enoxacin (ENX), the lowest singlet state was not significantly reactive and an important deactivation channel was intersystem crossing (ISC) to the triplet manifold. The lowest triplet state underwent cleavage of the C6-F bond through a solvent mediated process possibly via a cyclohexadienyl anionic adduct. In the presence of sulfite or phosphate buffer a novel defluorination mechanism, induced by electron transfer from the inorganic anions to the FQ triplet state, was observed. The correlation between the transients observed and the final photoproducts in the different media was elucidated.
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Antibiotic susceptibility of ten bacteria i.e. Neisseria catarrhalis, Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli to twenty antibiotics i.e. cefpirom (30 mcg), ceftriaxone (30 mcg), erythromycin (15 mcg), doxycycline (30 mcg) lomefloxacin (10 mcg), sisomicin (30 mcg), vancomycin (30 mcg), augmentin (30 mcg), ampicillin (30 mcg), cotrimoxazole (25 mcg), cefotaxime (30 mcg), Chloramphenicol (30 mcg), cephalexin (30 mcg), tetracycline (30 mcg), ciprofloxacin (5 mcg), nitrofurantoin (300 mcg), nalidixic acid (30 mcg), pefloxacin (10 mcg), norfloxacin and ofloxacin (5 mcg) was studied to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of recently introduced second and third generation antibiotics. All the test strains were sensitive to pefloxacin, erythromycin, augmentin and chloramphenicol. Maximum resistance to cefpirom excluding E. coli and S. typhi and co-trimoxazole except S. typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed, occasional resistance was seen against ceftriaxone, vancomycin and cefotaxime.