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To evaluate the clinical and microbiologic efficacy and safety of norfloxacin for acute diarrhea.
Clinical and epidemiological data were collected from domiciliary cases and also from patients attending two medical camps that had been set up for the purpose. Stool and water samples were collected for isolation of diarrhoeagenic pathogens.
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We describe a 4 year old girl with acute Aeromonas hydrophila gastro-enteritis who presented with a combination of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment. Serum parathyroid hormone was not elevated. Both milk-alkali syndrome and intoxication of vitamins A and D were ruled out. The hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal impairment were improved by fluid infusion and intravenous administration of furosemide. Gastro-enteritis also improved with oral administration of the antibiotic norfloxacin. The association of A. hydrophila gastro-enteritis with hypercalcemia has not been described previously.
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Nosocomial infections caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of different classes of integrons in isolated Acinetobacter. In addition, the association between production of specific bands in PCR assay and magnitude of multi-drug resistance was investigated. In total, 88 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from patients from October 2008 through September 2009. The Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12 antibiotics conventionally used in clinics against the isolates, was determined by E-test method. The existence of integron classes was investigated by PCR assay through the amplification of integrase genes. The most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter was colistin with 97.7% activity, followed by imipenem (77.3%) and meropenem (72.7%). The presence ofintegron classes 1 and 2 in 47 (53.4%) isolates was confirme, However, no class 3 was detected. The proportion of class 1, compared with class 2, was high (47.7% vs. 3.4%). The association between multi-drug resistance to norfloxacin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, cefepime and amikacin and the presence of integrons was statistically significant. However, the association was not remarkable in many of the isolates which exhibited resistance to the rest of antibiotics. This may imply that in addition to integrons, other resistance determinants such as transposon and plasmid may also contribute to resistance. To reduce the pressure on sensitive isolates, comprehensive control measures should be implemented. Furthermore, wise application of effective antibiotics could help alleviate the situation. Colistin is the most effective antibiotic in vitro against Acinetobacter.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a fluoroquinolone norfloxacin, using selected oxidative stress parameters as a target. Toxicity tests were performed on zebrafish according to the OECD Guidelines number 203 and number 215. In the Subchronic Toxicity Test, a significant (P < 0.01) increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and catalase was found. In the test, norfloxacin did not affect lipid peroxidation and catalytic activity of glutathione reductase. From the results, we can conclude that norfloxacin has a negative impact on specific biochemical processes connected with the production of reactive oxygen species in fish tested.
The complexation of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobials is important because it has been implicated in reduced oral bioavailability and reduced antimicrobial activity when the drugs are co-administered with antacids or multi-vitamin preparations containing iron. The complexation of two model compounds, lomefloxacin and norflaxacin was studied using NMR. With aluminum ions, exchange between free and bound drug molecules was slow on the NMR time-scale. Two complexes, proposed to have stoichiometries of 2:1 and 3:1 (drug:metal) based on peak widths and variable temperature studies, were observed. The crystal structure of lomefloxacin, which shows intermolecular self association previously reported to be crucial to the drug's mode of action, is also reported. Because the metal ion complexes could not be crystallized, the crystal structure of uncomplexed lomefloxacin together with the NMR data on the aluminum complexes were used in the molecular modelling of the lomefloxacin-aluminum complexes.
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Multidrug efflux pumps play an important role as a self-defense system in bacteria. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are classified into five families based on structure and coupling energy: resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND), small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator (MF), ATP binding cassette (ABC), and multidrug and toxic compounds extrusion (MATE). We cloned a gene encoding a MATE-type multidrug efflux pump from Streptococcus pneumoniae R6, and designated it pdrM. PdrM showed sequence similarity with NorM from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, YdhE from Escherichia coli, and other bacterial MATE-type multidrug efflux pumps. Heterologous expression of PdrM let to elevated resistance to several antibacterial agents, norfloxacin, acriflavine, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) in E. coli KAM32 cells. PdrM effluxes acriflavine and DAPI in a Na(+)- or Li(+)-dependent manner. Moreover, Na(+) efflux via PdrM was observed when acriflavine was added to Na(+)-loaded cells expressing pdrM. Therefore, we conclude that PdrM is a Na(+)/drug antiporter in S. pneumoniae. In addition to pdrM, we found another two genes, spr1756 and spr1877,that met the criteria of MATE-type by searching the S. pneumoniae genome database. However, cloned spr1756 and spr1877 did not elevate the MIC of any of the investigated drugs. mRNA expression of spr1756, spr1877, and pdrM was detected in S. pneumoniae R6 under laboratory growth conditions. Therefore, spr1756 and spr1877 are supposed to play physiological roles in this growth condition, but they may be unrelated to drug resistance.
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The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus in Escherichia coli consists of two divergently expressed operons (marC and marRAB), both of which contribute to the Mar phenotype. Overexpression of the marRAB operon protected E. coli against rapid cell killing by fluoroquinolones. Inactivation of the operon in mar mutants restored a wild-type bactericidal susceptibility. Both operons of the locus were required for protection from the quinolone-mediated bactericidal activity in mar locus deletion mutants. The effect was lost at high concentrations of fluoroquinolones, unlike the case for the previously described genes hipA and hipQ. The inducible mar locus appears to specify a novel antibactericidal mechanism which may play a role in the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical E. coli isolates.