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Twenty two cases were identified (10 male, mean age 59.1 years). Jaundice occurred a median of 17 days after drug commencement, with a median peak bilirubin level of 225 micromol/l (range 84-598) and median duration of jaundice 69 days (range 29-150). Two patients had primary biliary cirrhosis and two other patients had persistently abnormal liver biochemistry on follow up. One death occurred in a frail elderly woman despite resolving jaundice. The frequency of jaundice was 1 in 78 209 co-amoxiclav prescriptions. Liver biopsy, available in 12 patients, showed perivenular bilirubinostasis, accompanying reactive ceroid laden macrophages, and portal inflammation with focal injury to interlobular bile ducts. Fourteen of 20 patients had DRB1*1501 compared with 27 of 134 controls (p<2.5 x 10(-6); odds ratio (OR) 9.25; relative risk (RR) 6.43). Of these, seven patients were homozygous for DRB1*1501(p< 10(-8); OR 35.54; RR=8.68) compared with two of 134 controls. All patients with DRB1*1501 had the extended haplotype DRB1*1501-DRB5*0101-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602. There were no clinical or histological differences between genotypes.
To compare the efficacy of fosfomycin trometamol, cefuroxime axetil, and amoxicillin clavulanate antibiotics, and to assess the difference in patient compliance, in the treatment of urinary tract infections during pregnancy.
The effects of concentrations that simulated those in human serum after a single intravenous dose of amoxicillin (2 g), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2,000 and 200 mg, respectively), or vancomycin (500 mg), on the viability and beta-lactamase activity of two isogenic (beta-lactamase and non-beta-lactamase producer) heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were studied in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. A reduction of > or = 97% of the initial inoculum was obtained with vancomycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against both strains, with respect to the total bacterial population and the oxacillin-resistant subpopulation. The same pattern was observed with amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase-negative strain. beta-Lactamase activity in the beta-lactamase-positive strain changed over time parallel to viability, decreasing with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or vancomycin and increasing in the amoxicillin and control groups. Clavulanic acid concentrations achievable in serum that changed over time allowed amoxicillin to act against the beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus to a similar extent as vancomycin.
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Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. Amoxicillin/clavulanate 2000/125 mg was at least as effective clinically and as safe as amoxicillin/clavulanate 875/125 mg in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in a country with a high prevalence of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and has a more convenient twice daily posology.
An electronic records-linkage system identified 145 obese women (body mass index, >30 kg/m(2)) who underwent combined hysterectomy and panniculectomy from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2008. The EPA cohort received standard antibiotics (cefazolin, 2 g) and continued oral antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) until removal of drains. Regression models were used to adjust for known confounders.
This study confirms that the administration of Cefaclor for five days during GAS-FT has the same efficacy as a 10-day therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanate, with a clearly different compliance.
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No significant relation was found between topical or systemic antibiotic use and pain intensity after tonsillectomy.
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To describe the clinical characteristics and the course of acute bacterial parotitis in infants less than 3 months old.