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Review of the data base revealed 207 cases of serious acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis leading to death in 4 cases (2%). Of these cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, only one drug was suspected in 107 cases (51.6%). The main drugs involved were: pristinamycin (18 cases), amoxicillin (+/- clavulanic acid) (16 cases), hydroxychloroquine (8 cases) and a combination of spiramycin + metronidazole (5 cases).
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The efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid for prevention of postoperative wound infection was compared with that of cefamandole in 150 patients at risk for infected bile while undergoing elective biliary surgery in a prospective, randomized study. The two groups were comparable for age, sex, risk factors, operative procedures and positive bile cultures. Similar numbers of patients had an uncomplicated postoperative course (amoxycillin-clavulanic acid 70%; cefamandole 73%). Four patients in each group developed wound infection. The incidence of postoperative pneumonia, urinary tract infection and number of days (+/- SD) in hospital (amoxycillin-clavulanic acid 10.1 +/- 4.7; cefamandole 9.7 +/- 5.6) were similar. The efficacy of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and cefamandole in preventing wound sepsis in high-risk patients undergoing biliary surgery was similar. Economic considerations may favour the use of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid.
The recommended antibiotic prophylaxis by second-generation cephalosporins reduces the incidence of wound infection and empyema, but its effectiveness on postoperative pneumonias (POPs) after major lung resection lacks demonstration. We investigated risk factors and characteristics of POPs occurring when antibiotic prophylaxis by second-generation cephalosporin or an alternative prophylaxis targeting organisms responsible for bronchial colonization was used.
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The clinical symptoms and signs of sinusitis, but not FEV(1), showed a significant improvement after antibiotic treatment. After aggressive treatment for sinusitis, it was found that the provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) of children with mild asthma and sinusitis was significantly higher after treatment.
Two tertiary infertility care units.
The study was a controlled, randomized, open-label, 2-armed, noninferiority trial comparing no prophylaxis with prophylaxis (co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg per day or co-amoxiclav 15 mg/kg per day) for 12 months. A total of 338 children who were aged 2 months to <7 years and had a first episode of febrile urinary tract infection were enrolled: 309 with a confirmed pyelonephritis on a technetium 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan with or without reflux and 27 with a clinical pyelonephritis and reflux. The primary end point was recurrence rate of febrile urinary tract infections during 12 months. Secondary end point was the rate of renal scarring produced by recurrent urinary tract infections on technetium 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan after 12 months.
To investigate the prevalence of significant enterococcal isolates from urine and determine what factors are associated with the increased prevalence, with particular reference to antibiotic susceptibilities.
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The median (range) observed maximum plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate were 11.5 (3.3-40.2) mg/L and 5.1 (0.8-12.1) mg/L, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-lives were 94 (73-215) and 89 (57-140) min, respectively. Simulation indicated that co-amoxiclav 1750/250 mg given at 4, 6, 8 or 12 hourly dosing intervals would be associated with a T > MIC of < or = 50% in 0.7%, 2.8%, 8.6% and 33.2% of patients, respectively. Corresponding proportions for T > MIC of > or = 90% were 95.8%, 78.6%, 50.2% and 10.8%, respectively.