The risk of fistula formation is a major concern after incision and drainage of an anorectal abscess.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced liver injury is a well recognized complication. Presentation and outcome may vary, which is related to individual liver maturity, genetic predisposition, enzyme heterogeneity, intensity of treatment, and drug interactions. In most cases withdrawing the drug is sufficient treatment; however, cases of progressive liver damage leading to liver transplantation have been reported.
We report a patient with bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws who developed pathological fractures of the upper and lower extremities after the suspension of treatment with bisphosphonates. Temporary discontinuation of the drugs does not alter the clinical course of the disease, and could result in the recurrence of bone pain and the progression of metastases or osteolytic lesions.
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Children attending day care centers (DCCs) frequently carry antibacterial-resistant organisms in their nasopharynx, leading to acute otitis media (AOM) that may be refractory to antibacterial treatment. The development and spread of resistant organisms are facilitated in DCCs as a result of the following: (i) large numbers of children; (ii) frequent close person-to-person contact; and (iii) a wide use of antimicrobial medications. Intensive antimicrobial usage provides the selection pressure that favors the emergence of resistant organisms, while DCCs provide an ideal environment for transmission of these organisms. The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians' guidelines recommend high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (rather than amoxicillin alone) as the first therapeutic choice in the treatment of AOM in children attending DCCs. The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) had a major role in decreasing the number of episodes of Streptococccus pneumoniae AOM secondary to the serotypes included in the vaccine. It also had a major role in reducing the nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type S. pneumoniae (and in particular of antibacterial-resistant organisms), preventing, in this way, its spread to contacts in the community. However, the recent observation of increased rates of antibacterial-resistant non-vaccine serotype S. pneumoniae may erode the success of PCV7.
Children with no recurrences during the last month received phenoxymethylpenicillin (n=22), and those with a recurrence within 1 month received amoxicillin clavulanic acid (n=86), both twice daily for 10 days. These were followed by a streptococcal or placebo solution sprayed into the nose for a further 10 days. At day 60 the same spray was started for another 10 days.
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From 1985 to 2000, acute suppurative thyroiditis was diagnosed in 11 previously healthy children (6 boys, 5 girls) at the Department of Pediatrics. Their mean age at diagnosis was 6.4 +/- 4.4 years. Leukocyte count, acute-phase reactants, thyroid function, and thyroid autoantibodies were assessed. Samples were taken by thyroid needle aspiration for cytology study and pus culture. Underlying pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) was demonstrated by barium esophagogram.
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The results showed a genetic diversity of Campylobacter between farms indicating multiple sources of infection; but specific clones had the ability to colonize the broiler farms. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were not related to any specific PFGE pattern suggesting that resistance was due to the selective pressure of antibiotic usage. Campylobacter with similar genotypes were circulating in both human and poultry.
One hundred twenty two patients were assigned randomly into the four groups. Infection developed in a patient in the short-term amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group and in a patient in the long-term penicillin group.
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The efficacy, tolerability and safety of azithromycin and co-amoxiclav in the treatment of non-severe acute maxillary/ethmoidal sinusitis were compared in a randomized, open clinical trial in 254 adult patients. The predominant pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (83 patients). Azithromycin was administered orally to 165 patients at a single daily dose of 500 mg for 3 days, and co-amoxiclav (4:1) to 89 patients, at a dose of 500 mg three times daily for 10 days. The overall clinical response rates were 87.5% for azithromycin and 83.7% for co-amoxiclav at follow-up (day 21-28). Microbiological responses to both drugs were good, with only five patients in each group having a persistent infection after treatment. Both drugs were well tolerated and produced similar incidences of adverse events, which were mostly gastrointestinal. Azithromycin was as effective, and as well tolerated as co-amoxiclav, and its shorter simpler dosing regime may offer advantages in compliance and cost.
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We describe a case of a 47-year-old man who developed a severe blistering eruption after therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.