We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013).
5.9% of children of the individualized care group compared with 14.4% of Legacy controls and 27.3% of community controls became otitis prone, defined as 3 episodes of AOM within a 6-month time span or 4 AOM episodes within a 12-month time span (P < 0.0001). 2.4% of the individualized care group compared with 6.3% of Legacy controls, and 14.8% of community controls received tympanostomy tubes (P < 0.0001).
Between December 1997 and September 1998, children 6 months to 6 years of age, diagnosed with acute otitis media were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) 45 mg/kg/d in 2 divided doses for 10 days or azithromycin (Zithromax), 10 mg/kg, once on the first day, followed by 5 mg/kg daily for 4 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs for culture were obtained before and at 2 weeks and 2 months after the start of therapy. Streptococci were identified by species, and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the epsilometric test.
The clinical use of cefaclor has been shown to enrich Haemophilus influenzae populations harboring cefaclor-hydrolyzing ROB-1 beta-lactamase. Such a selective process may lead to the increased use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins or beta-lactams plus beta-lactamase inhibitors and, eventually, resistance to these agents, which has not previously been observed in H. influenzae. In order to establish which bla(ROB-1) mutations, if any, could confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and/or to beta-lactamase inhibitors, a plasmid harboring bla(ROB-1) was transformed into hypermutagenic strain Escherichia coli GB20 (DeltaampC mutS::Tn10), and this construct was used in place of H. influenzae bla(ROB-1). Strain GB20 with the cloned gene was submitted to serial passages in tubes containing broth with increasing concentrations of selected beta-lactams (cefotaxime or amoxicillin-clavulanate). Different mutations in the bla(ROB-1) gene were obtained during the passages in the presence of the different concentrations of the selective agents. Mutants resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins harbored either the Leu169-->Ser169 or the Arg164-->Trp164 substitution or the double amino acid change Arg164-->Trp164 and Ala237-->Thr237. ROB-1 mutants that were resistant to beta-lactams plus beta-lactamase inhibitors and that harbored the Arg244-->Cys244 or the Ser130-->Gly130 replacement were also obtained. The cefaclor-hydrolyzing efficiencies of the ROB-1 variants were strongly decreased in all mutants, suggesting that if bla(ROB-1) mutants were selected by cefaclor, this drug would prevent the further evolution of this beta-lactamase toward molecular forms able to resist extended-spectrum cephalosporins or beta-lactamase inhibitors.
The local high concentration of antibiotics in the oropharynx immediately after intake of antibiotic suspensions seem to have little or no impact on the extent of disturbance of the microflora in this region. Children of this age group seem prone to either reinfection, recolonization or persistence of pathogens within 2 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, co-infection with more than one pathogen seems common in children with AOM and infection with beta-lactamase producing microorganisms occurs frequently.
dose of moxacil
From February to June 2011, a cross-sectional analytical survey was conducted among febrile children less than five years of age. Demographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized pre-tested questionnaire. Blood and urine culture was done, followed by the identification of isolates using in-house biochemical methods. Susceptibility patterns to commonly used antibiotics were investigated using the disc diffusion method. Giemsa stained thin and thick blood smears were examined for any malaria parasites stages.
Intranasal resorbable packing, such as Nasopore, is commonly used during sinus surgery despite a paucity of evidence that demonstrates clinical benefit. We theorized that Nasopore supports bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The DNABII family of bacterial nucleic acid binding proteins stabilizes the extracellular polymeric substance of the biofilm, thus protecting bacteria from host defenses and traditional antibiotics. We tested the hypothesis that use of anti-IHF antibodies in conjunction with antibiotics would enhance biofilm eradication from Nasopore.
In a series of 64 patients requiring amputation for lower limb sepsis, the performance of a new antibiotic combination with beta-lactamase-inhibiting properties, amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid (A-CA) (Augmentin; Beecham) in the prophylaxis of postoperative wound sepsis, was compared with that of a combination of amoxycillin and ampicillin (A-A) (Suprapen; Bencard) and a control group. The sepsis rate following A-CA prophylaxis (12,9%) was significantly less than in the control group (x 2 = 18, 49; P less than 0,001). Although not attaining statistical significance (x 2 = 2, 12),, A-CA compared favourably with A-A (sepsis rate 35.3%) in the prevention of post-amputation wound sepsis. There was no statistically significant difference in the development of sepsis between wounds closed primarily and those left unsatured while under A-CA cover. It is concluded that peri-operative antibiotic cover for amputations in septic lower limb lesions is advisable and that A-CA is a valuable antibiotic in this situation.