To assess the prevalence of, and the variation in, avoidable use of metronidazole in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system
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Data from women who were enrolled in a trial of antibiotics for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and of preterm birth were analyzed. Women who had HIV and women who did not have HIV were assigned randomly to either metronidazole 250 mg and erythromycin 250 mg at 20 to 24 weeks of gestation 3 times daily for 7 days and metronidazole 250 mg and ampicillin 500 mg every 4 hours during labor or identical placebos. Women with HIV were offered nevirapine at delivery for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. At delivery, various placental sites were evaluated for polymorphonuclear cell and mononuclear cell infiltration.
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81 follow-up MRI-studies in 25 patients conducted within a period of 3 weeks to 4 years were evaluated retrospectively. Therapy consisted in various combinations of antibiotics and immunosuppressive agents and if necessary operation. The findings of the MRI-studies were correlated with clinical data (e.g.operation of Crohn's complications) and the subjective perception during therapy.
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The maxillary first molars of 3-week-old mice were extracted and immersed in 3Mix solution for 30 minutes in comparison with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation were assessed in extracted/replanted teeth during days 0-14 using immunohistochemistry, apoptosis assay, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
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CDAD recurrence rates were similar to those reported in the literature. The risk of first recurrence was significantly higher in patients older than 70 who also received PPI treatment.
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This was a cohort study of women with nonulcerative STIs who were treated according to local SM protocols.
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A hatching-year bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for clinical examination after being found unable to fly. Upon admission, routine wet-mount microscopy detected no trichomonads. Five months later, oral cavity inspection found no abnormalities, but the eagle was swabbed for research on trichomonosis in maritime birds. The swab was used to inoculate an InPouch TF culture and trichomonads were visible within 24 hr. Genotyping (ITS) revealed a Trichomonas isolate that was 100% identical to an isolate from a bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) from the Czech Republic. The eagle was treated with metronidazole (50 mg/kg q 12h PO for 5 consecutive days). Following treatment, the eagle was swabbed and the inoculated InPouch TF culture was monitored daily for 1 wk. No trichomonads were observed. Rehabilitation centers interested in surveillance should consider combining the InPouch TF technique with clinical inspection of live birds to confirm trichomonosis and for future research.
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133 FD patients (31%) were infected with H. pylori (56 male, 77 female). There were 37 patients with EPS and 96 patients with PDS. Cag A genotype was performed in 114 patients and CagA 1a was demonstrated in 24.6%. Cag A 1a was relatively higher prevalence in PDS than EPS without statistical significance (26% vs 22%; P > 0.05). E-test for metronidazole was performed in 100 patients (32 EPS and 68 PDS patients) and metronidazole resistant strains were found in 30%. Metronidazole resistant strains were significantly higher in PDS than EPS patients (38.2% vs 12.5%; P = 0.03). In EPS patients, presence of cagA 2a gene was significantly higher in metronidazole resistant than metronidazole sensitive strains (100% vs 74.1%; OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.2-26.8, P = 0.01).