There were no significant differences (P < 0.05) in any of the plasma or saliva pharmacokinetic parameter values for metronidazole between volunteers receiving omeprazole or placebo when metronidazole was administered either as an intravenous infusion or orally. Following intravenous administration of metronidazole to the placebo group and omeprazole treated group respectively, the gastric transfer of metronidazole was significantly reduced from 15.5 +/- 10.4% to 2.6 +/- 1.0% of the dose (P = 0.007; 95% CI of difference 4.8 to 21.0) with concomitant changes in the metronidazole AUC (from 77.5 +/- 18.0 mumol l-1 h to 352.6 +/- 182.1 mumol l-1 h; P = 0.0003; 95% CI of difference 127.6 to 422.7), Cmax (from 61.4 +/- 26.5 mumol l-1 to 271.8 +/- 104.3 mumol l-1; p = 0.0001; 95% CI of difference 118.6 to 302.1). Similarly, the gastric juice AUC of hydroxymetronidazole was significantly reduced from 3.2 +/- 1.9 mumol l-1 h to 1.5 +/- 0.8 mumol l-1 h of the dose (P = 0.0043; 95% CI of difference 0.4 to 3.0) with a concomitant change in Cmax (from 5.0 +/- 2.5 mumol l-1 to 3.0 +/- 1.2 mumol l-1; P = 0.0007; 95% CI of difference 0.7 to 3.4).
Fifty-six patients (26 PTM and 30 PAM) completed medication and evaluation of the eradication. The eradication rates of PTM were 82.8% (24/29) and 92.3% (24/26), while those of PAM were 74.3% (26/35) and 89.7% (26/29) by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis, respectively. The differences between the regimens were not statistically significant. There were no severe adverse effects observed in either of the regimens. The drug-resistance analyses showed 15 CAM- and one MNZ-resistant cases but no TC or AMPC resistance in the available 25 samples.
This was a 6-month randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All GAgP patients received full-mouth disinfection followed by staged scaling and root planing without (placebo group; n = 17) or with (test group; n = 18) systemic antimicrobials (500 mg amoxicillin [AMX] + 250 mg metronidazole [MET]; three times a day for 10 days). Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-therapy. Significant differences between groups at baseline were sought by using the Mann-Whitney U test, whereas comparisons over time were examined by using a general linear model repeated measures procedure.
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Treatment with metronidazole is as effective as that with tinidazole in terms of efficacy. Moreover, duration did not influence efficacy of treatment.
Busulfan is a bifunctional alkylating agent widely used in pretransplant conditioning regimens in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Busulfan metabolism is best described by hepatic conjugation to glutathione by GSTA1, although some CYP-dependent pathways have been described. Currently there is 1 publication describing the drug interaction between oral busulfan and oral metronidazole, in which concomitant use of metronidazole resulted in higher busulfan trough concentrations and higher risk of veno-occlusive disease. Our case represents a possible drug interaction based on the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale.
FabH, β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III, is critically important to the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis and is highly conserved among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A series of novel secnidazole derivatives (1-20) were synthesized and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Among these compounds, 6, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16-20 were reported for the first time. These compounds were tested for antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The compounds inhibitory assay and docking simulation indicated that compound 20 (E)-2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N'-(3,4,5-trimethylbenzylidene)acetohydrazide with MIC of 3.13-6.25 μg/mL against the tested bacterial strains was a potent inhibitor of Escherichia coli FabH.
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There was a high prevalence of resistance to metronidazole 68/90 (75.5%). No male (34/45 (75.5%) versus female (35/45 (77.7%) difference in frequency of metronidazole resistance was noted (p = 1.000). There was zero resistance (0) to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin/furazolidone. Resistance to rifampicin/rifabutin was for breakpoints of 1 and 4 μg/mL of 14.4 and 2.2% respectively.