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Orbital cellulitis is uncommon. It may arise as a sequel to eyelid infection, or from direct spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses; it may be of odontogenic origin and has been reported after meningitis and after nasoorbital fractures with pre-existing sinusitis. Clinically, orbital cellulitis is of great importance, as it is a severe disease with potentially disastrous consequences. It may lead to optic neuritis, optic atrophy, blindness, cavernous sinus thrombosis, superior orbital fissure syndrome, meningitis, subdural empyema, and even death. We report two cases of severe post-traumatic orbital cellulitis with subperiosteal abscesses. These were managed surgically and vision was preserved. We describe the anatomy, a classification of orbital infection, and the importance of multidisciplinary management of these cases.
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Parenteral amoxycillin/clavulanate is a safe and effective antibiotic as the monotherapy for prevention of SSI following intra-abdominal surgery.
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Brain abscess is a serious life-threatening infection of the brain parenchyma. We are reporting a rare case of brain abscess caused by Group G Streptococcus in a 12 year-old female child who presented with neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed with congenital anomalies of the heart at birth. She was treated with amoxyclav and ciprofloxacin. The child recovered and was discharged uneventfully.
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Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) encompasses a distinct type of periodontal disease exhibiting much more rapid periodontal tissue destruction than chronic periodontitis. The best method for management of GAgP may include the use of both regenerative periodontal techniques and the administration of systemic antibiotics.
Between January, 1992 and March, 1994, 314 patients who presented to our outpatient clinic with common colds were enrolled in the double-blind, placebo-controlled study. They were randomly assigned 5 days' treatment with co-amoxiclav (375 mg three times daily) or identical placebo. Clinical examinations were done at enrolment and on day 5-7 to assess outcome (cured, persistent symptoms, worse symptoms). Seven patients were excluded after randomisation, seven did not have nasopharyngeal aspiration, and 12 did not return for followup assessment.
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Pancreatitis is a rare adverse effect of codeine. We report the case of a 42-year-old man who suffered from epigastric pain 1 hour after taking a tablet containing amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (500/125 mg) and another tablet containing acetaminophen plus codeine (500/30 mg) for a respiratory infection. He was admitted to the emergency room and was treated with metamizol and pantoprazole. A few minutes after receiving intravenous doses of both drugs he developed a maculopapular and itching eruption with facial angioedema. Laboratory tests showed high levels of serum amylase, GOT, GPT and total bilirubin. Serological tests for several viruses showed no evidence of recent infection. Ultrasonography was negative for biliary lithiasis and showed only cholecystectomy performed in 2000. The patient was sent to our department where skin prick and oral challenge tests were performed with negative results. For ethical reasons, oral challenge with codeine was not carried out. We believe that our patient had codeine-induced pancreatitis. The most likely underlying pathophysiological mechanism was probably codeine-induced spasm of the sphincter of Oddi combined with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction related to a previous cholecystectomy. Allergy departments should be aware of possible non-immunological adverse.
This study demonstrated that A-CA exhibited the lowest bacterial resistance for clinical isolates in primary dentition infections.
The antispirochetal activity in vitro and in vivo of several antibiotics against ten isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi from human spinal fluids and skin biopsies was determined. Borrelia burgdorferi was most susceptible in vitro to erythromycin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime (MIC90: 0.06, 0.06, 0.12 mcg/ml respectively). Less activity was observed with tetracycline, amoxycillin and lincomycin (MIC90: 0.50 mcg/ml), imipenem and augmentin (MIC90: 0.25 mcg/ml), oxacillin (MIC90: 1 mcg/ml), ciprofloxacin (MIC90: 2 mcg/ml) and ofloxacin (MIC90: 4 mcg/ml). Penicillin G, normally regarded as appropriate treatment for Lyme disease, had an MIC90 of only 4 mcg/ml. With the exception of erythromycin, activity in vitro corresponded to the activity in vivo. Erythromycin, however, was less active in vivo, and penicillin G showed poor activity both in vitro and in vivo.