Nude mice are an adequate model for in vivo chemotherapy studies. Among tested drugs, cefoxitin and tigecycline showed promising in vivo activity against M. abscessus. The best drug combination remains to be determined.
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H. pylori was isolated from 62 patients, and 52 of them (83.9%) were clarithromycin resistant. There was no amoxicillin- or metronidazole-resistant strain. No major adverse effects were seen, and all the patients completed the 1-week regimen. The eradication rates of lansoprazole-amoxicillin-metronidazole were 96.2% (51/53; 95% CI, 87.0%-99.5%) using both intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis.
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Long-term, low-dose erythromycin therapy seems to be a promising alternative when more conventional therapy fails. However, placebo-controlled studies are needed to validate the potential of this treatment.
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In a blinded two-way crossover study clarithromycin 500 mg and a placebo were administered to 10 normal subjects and 10 subjects with gall-stone disease. Gall-bladder volumes were assessed in the fasting and postprandial state.
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We found an A2143G (8 strains) mutation in primary clarithromycin-resistant strains, an A2143T (5 strains) mutation in secondary clarithromycin-resistant strains; but no mutations were found in position 2143 of sensitive strains. A T2182C mutation in primary clarithromycin-sensitive, primary clarithromycinresistant and secondary clarithromycin-resistant strains was found with a prevalence of 86.7% (13 strains), 72.2% (13 strains) or 87.5% (7 strains), respectively. In addition, we found a G2254T (8 strains) and a G2172T (7 strains) mutation in secondary clarithromycin- resistant strains. These point mutations were absent in primary clarithromycin-resistant and -sensitive strains.
Time-dependent inactivation (TDI) of human cytochromes P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is a major cause of clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Human liver microsomes (HLM) are commonly used as an enzyme source for evaluating the inhibition of CYP3A4 by new chemical entities. The inhibition data can then be extrapolated to assess the risk of human DDIs. Using this approach, under- and overpredictions of in vivo DDIs have been observed. In the present study, human hepatocytes were used as an alternative to HLM. Hepatocytes incorporate the effects of other mechanisms of drug metabolism and disposition (i.e., phase II enzymes and transporters) that may modulate the effects of TDI on clinical DDIs. The in vitro potency (K(I) and k(inact)) of five known CYP3A4 TDI drugs (clarithromycin, diltiazem, erythromycin, verapamil, and troleandomycin) was determined in HLM (pooled, n = 20) and hepatocytes from two donors (D1 and D2), and the results were extrapolated to predict in vivo DDIs using a Simcyp population trial-based simulator. Compared with observed DDIs, the predictions derived from HLM appeared to be overestimated. The predictions based on TDI measured in hepatocytes were better correlated with the DDIs (n = 37) observed in vivo (R(2) = 0.601 for D1 and 0.740 for D2) than those from HLM (R(2) = 0.451). In addition, with the use of hepatocytes a greater proportion of the predictions were within a 2-fold range of the clinical DDIs compared with using HLM. These results suggest that DDI predictions from CYP3A4 TDI kinetics in hepatocytes could provide an alternative approach to balance HLM-based predictions that can sometimes substantially overestimate DDIs and possibly lead to erroneous conclusions about clinical risks.
A total of 47 children were examined during a period of 11 months. The indications for drug prescribed were tonsillitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, otitis and sinusitis. The most usually implicated drugs were amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporin, clindamycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and paracetamol. The main clinical patterns of the eruptions seen were urticaria, maculopapular rash, fixed drug eruption and erythema multiforme.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a decisive role in primary gastric B-cell lymphoma especially of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type. We treated a 47-year-old male patient with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma associated with H. pylori infection. Although antibiotic therapy for eradication of H. pylori caused great improvement in the low-grade MALT lymphoma-like lesion, the small areas of high-grade lesion rapidly formed a new bulky mass in only 8 weeks. This suggests that eradication of H. pylori is not effective for high-grade lymphoma.
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Twelve healthy male subjects age range 24-40 y participated in the investigation. The trial was divided into 2 35-d periods. The 2 treatment regimens were: (i) 1 x 400 mg moxifloxacin tablet in the morning and 1 placebo tablet in the evening for 7 d; and (ii) 1 x 500 mg clarithromycin tablet in the morning and 1 x 500 mg clarithromycin tablet in the evening for 7 d. Each subject received firstly I treatment regimen and secondly the other treatment regimen. The wash-out period was 6 weeks between the two treatment regimens. Moxifloxacin caused significant decreases of enterococci and enterobacteria during the administration period while the numbers of staphylococci, streptococci, Bacillus and Candida were not affected. No impact on peptostreptococci, lactobacilli, Veillonella, Bacteroides or fusobacteria was observed, while bifidobacteria and clostridia decreased during moxifloxacin administration. The microflora was normalized after 35 d. Clarithromycin caused significant reduction of Escherichia coli while the numbers of enterococci, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas increased markedly. No significant changes in the numbers of staphylococci, streptococci, Bacillus and Candida were noticed. In the anaerobic microflora bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and clostridia were suppressed, while no changes in peptostreptococci, Veillonella, Bacteroides and fusobacteria were found. The microflora was normalized in all volunteers after 35 d.
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The aim of the work was to compare the quality of medical care provided to patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and its different outcomes. (complete recovery, or death--25 patients in either group). In the latter group, the patients did not undergo adequate clinical and instrumental examination at the pre-hospital stage). Most recovered patients were given high doses of ceftriaxone, clarithromycin and ambroxol or low doses of systemic glucocorticoids. A pulmonologist participated in the treatment of these patients twice as frequently as in the treatment of the patients of the latter group. Effects of high doses of systemic glucocorticoids remains debatable.