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The predominance of antibiotics among the reports of severe immediate and delayed-type drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely in accordance with literature although fluoroquinolones seem to be slightly overrepresented concerning anaphylactic reactions. The reader should be aware of the limitations of adverse drug reaction and prescription databases available to the public, and that over-the-counter drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and drugs typically administered in hospitals could not be considered.
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Ciprofloxacin is the substrate for a multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP)-like multidrug transporter in J774 mouse macrophages, which also modestly affects levofloxacin but only marginally affects garenoxacin and moxifloxacin (J.-M. Michot et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2429-2437, 2005). Two clones of ciprofloxacin-resistant cells were obtained by a stepwise increase in drug concentration (from 34 to 51 to 68 mg/liter) in the culture fluid. Compared to wild-type cells, ciprofloxacin-resistant cells showed (i) a markedly reduced ciprofloxacin accumulation (12% of control) and (ii) a two- to threefold lower sensitivity to the enhancing effect exerted by MRP-inhibitors (probenecid and MK571) on ciprofloxacin accumulation or by ciprofloxacin itself. ATP-depletion brought ciprofloxacin accumulation to similarly high levels in both wild-type and ciprofloxacin-resistant cells. Garenoxacin and moxifloxacin accumulation remained unaffected, and levofloxacin showed an intermediate behavior. DNA and protein synthesis were not impaired in ciprofloxacin-resistant cells for ciprofloxacin concentrations up to 100 mg/liter (approximately 85 and 55% inhibition, respectively, in wild-type cells). In Listeria monocytogenes-infected ciprofloxacin-resistant cells, 12-fold higher extracellular concentrations of ciprofloxacin were needed to show a bacteriostatic effect in comparison with wild-type cells. The data suggest that the resistance mechanism is mediated by an overexpression and/or increased activity of the MRP-like ciprofloxacin transporter expressed at a basal level in wild-type J774 macrophages, which modulates both the intracellular pharmacokinetics and activity of ciprofloxacin.
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The prevalence of clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole resistance was 60, 17.6, and 36.9%, respectively. The eradication rates of LS and LT were 84.3% (253/300) and 75.3% (226/300), respectively, in the ITT analysis (P=0.006) and 86.3% (253/293) and 78.8% (223/283), respectively, in the PP analysis (P=0.021). The efficacies of both LS and LT were affected by levofloxacin resistance. The secondary resistance of levofloxacin was 66.7 and 73.9% after LS and LT, respectively. The efficacies of LS and LT were not affected by the CYP2C19 polymorphism.
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Middle ear fluid samples were obtained from Costa Rican children with otitis media who participated in various antimicrobial clinical trials between 1992 and 2007. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified according to laboratory standard procedures. Strains were serotyped and antimicrobial susceptibility to penicillin, amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by E-test.
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Paronychia is a well-known, but difficult to treat cutaneous toxicity associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy. Although bacterial and fungal infections as well as mechanical trauma may play a role as co-pathogens, there is no good basis for an empirical antimicrobial chemotherapy in these patients.
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Three hundred consecutive HP-infected patients received antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy or empirical concomitant therapy for 10 days. The concomitant regimen was omeprazole (20 mg/12 hour), amoxicillin (1 g/12 hour), clarithromycin (500 mg/12 hour), and metronidazole (500 mg/12 hour) (OACM). Patients diagnosed by culture received one of three combinations of antibiotics based on susceptibility results: omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (OAC); omeprazole, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin (OAL); or omeprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole (OAM), at the aforementioned doses (and 500 mg/12 hour in the case of levofloxacin). Eradication was confirmed with a (13)C urea breath test, 6 weeks after treatment. Adverse events and adherence were assessed with questionnaires and reviewing medication sachets.
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Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 80 bacterial conjunctivitis isolates to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin. Using the MIC values, descriptive statistics (median, MIC50, MIC90, mode, range), antibiotic susceptibility, and potency of each antibiotic were calculated for each bacterial group. The data were analyzed statistically using appropriate randomization and nonparametric tests.
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Four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, including 100,876 adults and 131 endophthalmitis cases. While the sample size is very large, the heterogeneity of the study designs and modes of antibiotic delivery made it impossible to conduct a formal meta-analysis. Interventions investigated in the studies included the utility of adding vancomycin and gentamycin to the irrigating solution compared with standard balanced saline solution irrigation alone, use of intracameral cefuroxime and/or topical levofloxacin perioperatively, periocular penicillin injections and topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine drops compared with topical antibiotics alone, and mode of antibiotic delivery (subconjunctival versus retrobulbar injections). Two studies with adequate sample sizes to evaluate a rare outcome found reduced risk of endophthalmitis with antibiotic injections during surgery compared with topical antibiotics alone: risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.92 (periocular penicillin versus topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine) and RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.74 (intracameral cefuroxime versus topical levofloxacin). Another study found no significant difference in endophthalmitis when comparing subconjunctival versus retrobulbar antibiotic injections (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.32). The fourth study which compared irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS) alone versus BSS with antibiotics was not sufficiently powered to detect differences in endophthalmitis between groups. The risk of bias among studies was low to unclear due to information not being reported.
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Gonococcal infections are difficult to treat because of their multidrug antimicrobial resistance. The outbreak of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae has begun in Asia and particularly in Japan. Therefore, it is very important that we understand the trend of antimicrobial resistance of N. gonorrhoeae in Asia including Japan. Our surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae began in 2000 under the guidance of the Department of Urology, Gifu University. We report our surveillance data from 2000 to 2015.
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Recent management guidelines for acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) have provided antimicrobial options for different classes of patients according to varying disease severity or risk of treatment failure. In a pivotal, double-blind, double-dummy study comparing azithromycin microspheres (2 g single dose) with the respiratory quinolone levofloxacin (500 mg once daily x 7 days) for the treatment of AECB, the two regimens were equally effective and well tolerated in patients with mild-to-moderate disease (clinical cure rate 93.6% vs. 92.7%, respectively [95% confidence interval (CI) for difference, -3.4, 5.5] and overall bacteriological eradication rate 91.9% vs. 94.4%, respectively (95% CI for difference, -8.8, 3.8). Interestingly, additional post hoc analyses suggest that a single dose of azithromycin also provides comparable clinical efficacy to levofloxacin in patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of less than 70% of the predicted value, a risk factor that would place them in a more severe stratum. These data support azithromycin microspheres as an appropriate option in patients with mild-to-moderate AECB. The potential role of this preparation and other macrolides in patients at higher risk of therapeutic failure requires additional prospective data.