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Acute diarrhea is a common disease worldwide and in Israel, a Mediterranean country. Acute bacterial gastroenteritis (ABGE) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in Israel in summer and early autumn. Although there are some reports showing some benefit from empiric antibiotic therapy in acute gastroenteritis, most are old reports using nondefinitive diagnostic criteria and using 5-day antibiotic regimens.
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Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), descriptive statistics, antibiotic susceptibility, potency, and statistical analysis.
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Imipenem, levofloxacin or saline were administered to rats with caerulein induced pancreatitis. Twenty-four hours later serum amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and NO levels, pancreatic interstitial inflammation, acinar cell necrosis, acinar cell vacuolisation, peripancreatic fat necrosis; spotty necrosis, focal inflammation of liver and inflammatory processes in the lungs were assessed.
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The in vitro activity of clinafloxacin was studied in comparison with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. Clinafloxacin showed a MIC(90) of 4 mg/L, whereas the remaining quinolones showed a MIC(90) equal to or higher than 16 mg/L. MIC(50) determination in the presence of reserpine resulted in a two-fold decrease, except for trovafloxacin, which decreased four-fold, and for moxifloxacin and nalidixic acid, which did not change. The effect of reserpine was most pronounced among strains with a low level of resistance to quinolones. The MIC of clinafloxacin for strains with no mutation in either gyrA or parC genes ranged from 0.008 to 0.25 mg/L. In strains with a single mutation at amino acid codon Ser83 of the gyrA gene, the MIC of clinafloxacin ranged from 0.12 to 1 mg/L, whereas strains with a double mutation, one in the gyrA gene and another in the parC gene, showed a range of MIC of clinafloxacin from 1 to 8 mg/L. Therefore, clinafloxacin shows good activity against strains carrying a single mutation in the gyrA gene, and hence a second mutation is required for the microorganism to express resistance.
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Levofloxacin has been widely used because of its broad spectrum and excellent penetration of the prostate. But levofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli (E.coli) has been reported all over the world. We analyzed the annual levofloxacin resistance of E. coli and its risk factors.
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Patients treated for NF from January 2004 to February 2006 were identified by review of pathology records and diagnostic codes, and their medical records were reviewed. Isolates of MRSA from monomicrobial NF underwent testing for the PVL gene and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine relatedness to CA-MRSA strains.
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The formulation was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, in vitro drug release. Ocular retention studies were carried out by Gamma scintigraphy. Time activity curve was plotted between marketed formulation and developed formulation for comparing drug drainage from the eye with time. Ocular tolerance test was performed by handheld infra-red camera.
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The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease.
Two hundred ten bacterial strains were collected and tested including Staphylococcus aureus (29), Group B ß-haemolytic Streptococcus (10), Streptococcus pneumoniae (15), Enterococcus spp. (16), Haemophilus spp. (15), Escherichia coli (26), Klebsiella spp. (26), Enterobacter spp. (25), Serratia spp. (10), Acinetobacter baumannii (17) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21). All strains except P. aeuginosa were susceptible to tigecycline. All gram-positive strains were susceptible to linezolid. Meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam showed good activity against most organisms tested including P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Levofloxacin showed 100% activity against K. pneumoniae and 61% activity against E. coli. The activity of 3rd generation cephalosporins against E.coli and K.pneumoniae ranged from 76% to 100%.