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This is a descriptive study that was carried out at the Obstetrics Department of two tertiary institutions in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Federal Medical Center and Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital) over a period of 12 months. Midstream urine specimens from selected pregnant women with clinical features of UTI were collected for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. The results were analyzed with the 2008 Epi Info™ software.
A retrospective, subset analysis of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing 750 mg levofloxacin for 5 days to 500 mg levofloxacin for 10 days for the treatment of CAP.
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Povidone-iodine 10.0% was more effective than povidone-iodine 1.0% and 5.0% in decreasing the conjunctival bacterial load before surgery.
The potential of amphiphilic chitosan formed by grafting octanoyl chains on the chitosan backbone for pulmonary delivery of levofloxacin has been studied. The success of polymer synthesis was confirmed using FT-IR and NMR, whilst antimicrobial activity was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Highly dispersible dry powders for delivery as aerosols were prepared with different amounts of chitosan and octanoyl chitosan to study the effect of hydrophobic modification and varying concentration of polymer on aerosolization of drug. Powders were prepared by spray-drying from an aqueous solution containing levofloxacin and chitosan/amphiphilic octanoyl chitosan. l-leucine was also used to assess its effect on aerosolization. Following spray-drying, the resultant powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering, HPLC, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. The in vitro aerosolization profile was determined using a Next Generation Impactor, whilst in vitro antimicrobial assessment was performed using MIC assay. Microparticles of chitosan have the property of mucoadhesion leading to potential increased residence time in the pulmonary mucus, making it important to test the toxicity of these formulations. In-vitro cytotoxicity evaluation using MTT assay was performed on A549 cell line to determine the toxicity of formulations and hence feasibility of use. The MTT assay confirmed that the polymers and the formulations were non-cytotoxic. Hydrophobically modifying chitosan showed significantly lower MIC (4-fold) than the commercial chitosan against P. aeruginosa. The powders generated were of suitable aerodynamic size for inhalation having a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 4.5μm for formulations containing octanoyl chitosan. These highly dispersible powders have minimal moisture adsorption and hence an emitted dose of more than 90% and a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 52%. Powders with non-modified chitosan showed lower dispersibility, with an emitted dose of 72% and FPF of 20%, as a result of high moisture adsorption onto the chitosan matrix leading to cohesiveness and subsequently decreased dispersibility.
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We identified a large outbreak of rapidly growing mycobacterial lesions among women who received mesotherapy injections in a single beauty salon.
Pulmonary Mycobacterium abscessus infection is resistant to many antibiotics and is difficult to treat. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of pulmonary infection due to M. abscessus. Eleven cases diagnosed as having pulmonary M. abscessus infection at Osaka Red Cross Hospital from January. 2008, to June, 2012 were enrolled in this study. The average age of the 11 cases was 63 years (all were females). Nine cases showed underlying diseases, comprising 5 cases with Mycobacterium avium complex lung infection, 3 with old pulmonary tuberculosis, and 3 with bronchiectasis. The radiological examination revealed that 10 cases showed the small nodular type, 7 showed the bronchiectatic type, 4 showed a cavity lesion and 4 showed infiltrative shadows. A microbiological definite diagnosis was made from sputum in 10 cases and bronchial lavage fluid in one. As treatment for M. abscessus pulmonary infection, combined multi-drug chemotherapy was carried out in 7 of the 11 cases. No patients were successfully treated with antibiotics alone, whereas 4 patients had no exacerbation of radiological findings without any treatment. One patient received antibiotics including clarithromycin, amikacin and levofloxacin for 2 to 12 months following surgical excision and her sputum cultures have been maintained as negative over the long-term. During the study, none of the 11 patients were known to have died. In this study, we found that M. abscessus pulmonary infection is more common among females, and is found frequently in patients with M. avium complex lung infection. We also found that the clinical course of M. abscessus pulmonary infection was different among patients. We think this is because M. abscessus was shown to comprise three closely related species. M. abscessus is extremely difficult to eradicate, and surgical resection of localized disease or the main lesion or cavity may be significantly effective in preventing the progression of disease.
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Before treatment, difference of FKN and TNF-alpha levels between the two patients' groups were insignificant (P > 0.05), but all higher than those in Group C respectively (P < 0.01). While after treatment, the two indices and mPAP levels in Group B were statistically lower than those before treatment, also than those in Group A. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation between TNF-alpha and FKN (r = 0.662, P < 0.001).
A strategy of empiric treatment of non-severe CAP with levofloxacin as the antibiotic of choice is more useful than that of a treatment based on the clinical presentation.
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One-week low-dose proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies have usually proved to be effective treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection.