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The in vivo activity of telithromycin against erythromycin A- and penicillin G-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae was superior to that of azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefdinir, and levofloxacin. In respiratory tract infections caused by erythromycin A-susceptible S. pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae in mice, telithromycin was more effective than clarithromycin and comparable to azithromycin.
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The aim of this open-label, randomized, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil and levofloxacin in terms of speed of reduction in inflammatory parameters, clinical recovery, and microbiological eradication.
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We used mutant prevention concentration (MPC) testing to define the risk of fluoroquinolone resistance induction in N. gonorrhoeae by ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin in a wild-type isolate (ATCC 49226) and its corresponding gyrA mutant (m-49226).
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To explore the antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli across China.
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To investigate the effects of inactivation of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) combined with the administration of levofloxacin (LFX) on the cellular immune response of murine tuberculosis.
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All isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae collected by the 10 sites that participated in the annual CANWARD surveillance studies in each of the 5 years were included in this analysis. A multifactorial logistic regression model was used to determine the variables with significant impact on fluoroquinolone resistance.
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Antibiotic prophylaxis has been used during the initial phases of myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for more than two decades. However, the optimal regimen in terms of both cost and clinical effectiveness is unclear. We retrospectively compared the clinical and microbiological impact of a change in antibiotic prophylaxis practice from ceftazidime (n=216 patients with HCT in 2000-2002) to levofloxacin (n=219 patients, August 2002-2005) in patients receiving myeloablative conditioning. Levofloxacin prophylaxis was associated with fever and a change in antibiotics during neutropenia, but this strategy was not associated with any adverse outcomes. Patients receiving levofloxacin had lower rates of significant bacteremia than did those receiving ceftazidime (day 100, 19.2 vs 29.6%, P=0.02). The use of levofloxacin was associated with lower antibiotic acquisition costs. There was no deleterious impact caused by levofloxacin prophylaxis on survival, emergence of antibiotic resistance, detection of Clostridium difficile Ag in stool specimens, incidence of viridans group streptococcal bacteremia or Pseudomonas infections. There was a trend toward lower rates of bacteriuria, wound and bacterial respiratory infections in the levofloxacin than in the ceftazidime group, but these differences were not statistically significant. These data support the use of levofloxacin as prophylaxis in myeloablative allogeneic HCT when prophylaxis is used.
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Problems of low solubility, high serum protein binding, and lack of efficacy in vivo in first generation MexAB-OprM specific efflux pump inhibitors were addressed. Through the use of pharmacophore modelling, the key structural elements for pump inhibition were defined. Use of alternative scaffolds upon which the key elements were arrayed gave second generation leads with greatly improved physical properties and activity in the potentiation of antibacterial quinolones (levofloxacin and sitafloxacin) versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo.
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Two cases from the placebo group, 3 from the Cefazolin group and 3 from the Levofloxacin group failed to follow-up. Six patients (2 non-following the protocol, 2 severe depression, and 2 laparoscopic surgery) from the placebo group, 14 (8 nonreceiving trial medication, 5 laparoscopic surgery, and 1 failure to tolerance) from the Cefazolin group, and 12 (2 combination of antibiotic usage, 5 laparoscopic surgery and 5 failure to tolerance) from the Levofloxacin group were excluded. The data of the 1,160 cases were statistically analyzed in the incidence rates of surgical-site infection and complications after inguinal hernia repair. Surgical-site infection including wound infection, cellulitis or mesh-related infection was found in 20 cases (5.1%) of the control group, 15 (3.92%) of the Cefazolin group and 17 (4.42%) of the Levofloxacin group, and the difference among the three groups was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.438, p = 0.803). There was also no significant difference in post-surgery complications including seroma (p = 0.6366), urinary retention (p = 0.8136), fat liquefaction (p = 0.8061), pulmonary infection (p = 0.1911), and urinary tract infection (p = 0.8144) among the three groups.