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Levofloxacin and tobramycin, alone and in combination with cefepime, were investigated for their in vitro activities and post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
To test the susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae sinus isolates collected across the United States against commonly used antimicrobial agents.
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Biopsy samples were obtained from the stomach antrum and corpus of 777 patients from September 2004 until 2007. H. pylori isolated from these patients were then subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) determination using E-test method, against metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline.
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Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) of prulifloxacin against 30 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections as well as the 'biological cost' related to acquisition of resistance to the same drug in 10 uropathogenic E. coli were assessed. In terms of MIC(90), prulifloxacin was more potent than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Prulifloxacin produced lower or equal MPC values than the other two fluoroquinolones (93.3% and 73.3% compared with levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively). Compared with susceptible strains, prulifloxacin-resistant mutants showed a reduced rate of growth (ranging from 20.0% to 98.0% in different culture media and incubation conditions) and a decreased fitness index (ranging from 0.959 to 0.999). They were also impaired in their ability to adhere to uroepithelial cells and urinary catheters (11.7-66.4% and 16.3-78.3% reduction, respectively) and showed a lower surface hydrophobicity (51.2-76.0%). They were more susceptible to ultraviolet irradiation (30.6-93.8% excess mortality), showed increased resistance to colicins and diminished transfer of plasmids (<1-8.5x10(-8) vs. 3.3x10(-7)-2.4x10(-4)). Synthesis of haemolysin and type I fimbriae and production of flagella were also adversely affected. This study demonstrates a strict relationship between acquisition of prulifloxacin resistance and loss of important virulence traits. In this transition, E. coli pays a severe biological cost that entails a general reduction of fitness, thus compromising competition with susceptible wild-type strains in the absence of the drug.
To our knowledge, this is the first case of MRSA keratitis, and the second case of bacterial keratitis, after DSAEK. MRSA keratitis can occur following uneventful DSAEK. The empiric therapy on the basis of results from a light microscopic examination of a Gram-stained corneal scraping and restarting topical steroids in the early stages of medication contributed to the good clinical course of this case.
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A set of 80 Lactobacillus strains (36 Lactobacillus plantarum and 44 Lactobacillus paracasei) isolated from Spanish farmhouse cheeses have been studied as to their functional and safety properties and their survival under gut-related conditions. None of these 80 Lactobacillus strains were able to hydrolyse starch. A high percentage of L. plantarum and L. paracasei strains were, however, capable of hydrolysing casein (86.1% and 68.2% respectively). For the other characteristics investigated, L. plantarum strains generally had more positive responses than L. paracasei. The latter strains tested negative for most of these characteristics, with the exception of stachyose hydrolysis, which was positive in six strains of L. paracasei. A high percentage (91.7%) of L. plantarum produced haemo-dependent catalase. Phytase was present in 10 L. plantarum and in 2 L. paracasei. Most L. plantarum (83.3%) but no L. paracasei hydrolysed bile salts. All strains were completely resistant to a challenge of pH3, but many showed a loss of viability after a subsequent exposure to 0.3% oxgall; in fact, only one L. paracasei strain and 33 L. plantarum strains (91.67%) were tolerant to both stresses. L. plantarum Mb25 and L. plantarum Mb26 were the most adherent to Caco-2 cells (adherence percentages of 36 and 7% respectively). These two strains were also the most adherent to HeLa 229 cells, with 19.3 and 16.0% adhesion respectively. The Mb26 strain inhibited the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to Caco-2 cells when added simultaneously to Listeria and also when added 1h before the pathogen (21.0% and 51.6% adhesion inhibition, respectively). Production of H2O2 was detected in 38.9% of L. plantarum strains and in 9.1% of L. paracasei. Twelve L. plantarum and eight L. paracasei strains produced bacteriocin-like inhibitors. PCR amplifications of several plantaricin genes suggest that all the bacteriocinogenic strains may produce plantaricin E/F and some may also manufacture the plantaricin J/K. The nine L. plantarum strains assayed for antibiotic resistance were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC>2 μg/ml), vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/ml), and teicoplanin (MIC>16 μg/ml). Moreover, some strains showed intermediate resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, rifampicin, and levofloxacin. We conclude that farmhouse cheeses are good sources of biotechnologically relevant lactobacilli and that the L. plantarum species shows better biotechnological properties than L. paracasei. This can be deduced from the finding of a high percentage of strains of L. plantarum that exhibit remarkable functional and inhibitory properties and high abilities to survive in gut-related conditions, which can be further developed for biotechnological applications.
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Among 403 women with uncomplicated pyelonephritis caused by E. coli, the mean site rate of E. coli resistance to TMP-SMX was 24% (range, 13%-45%). Mean site rates of E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were 1% and 3%, respectively. Only TMP-SMX exposure within 2 days before presentation and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with E. coli resistance to TMP-SMX (compared with resistance rates of approximately 20% among women lacking these risk factors); antibiotic exposure within 3-60 days before presentation, health care setting exposure within 30 days before presentation, history of urinary tract infections, and age >55 years were not associated with E. coli resistance to TMP-SMX. Among 207 patients with complicated pyelonephritis, mean site rates of E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were 5% and 6%, respectively.